Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 13 - Moral Development.rtf

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Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Kara Thorsen

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Moral Development Life span Dethlopmental Psychology February 29 , 2012 What is Moral Development?  Changes in… o thoughts o feelings o behaviors  Involves two dimensions o Intrapersonal: regulates a person’s activities when NOT interacting with someone else o Interpersonal: regulates a person’s social interactions and arbitrates conflict o Thinking Morally Two Views o Piaget o Kohlberg Piaget’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Development o Three stages Piaget’s Stages  Premoral Stage (birth – ~4) o Child shows little concern for rules o This stage is not specified in the textbook  Heteronomous morality (Moral Realism) o 4-7 years o Think of justice and rules as unchangeable; out of control of people o Immanent Justice: The concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be given immediately or automatically  Age 7-10: Transition, showing features of the previous stage and the next stage  Autonomous Morality (Morality of Reciprocity Stage ) o Age 10+ o Aware the rules and laws are created by people, and in judging the action, one should consider the person’s intentions and the consequences  Story 1: “A little boy who is called John is in his room. He is called to dinner. He goes into the dining room. But behind the door is a chair, an on the chair there is a tray with 15 cups on it. John couldn’t have known that there was all this behind the door. He goes in, the door knocks against the tray, “bang” to the 15 cups and they all get broken!”  Story 2: “Once there was a little boy whose name was Henry. One day when his mother was out he tried to get some jam out of the cupboard. He climbed up on a chair and stretched out his arm. But the jam was too high up and he couldn’t reach it and have any. But while he was trying to get it, he knocked over a cup. The cup fell and broke” Kohlberg’s View  Three levels of moral thinking, each with two stages o Universal stages o Tested by dilemmas  Heinz and the pharmacist Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning  Motivation: avoid punishment and gain reward o Stage 1: Heteronomous morality  Obedience and Punishment o Stage 2: Individualism, instrumental purpose, & exchange  What is right involves an equal exchange Level 2: Conventional Reasoning  Apply standards set by others (parents, gov.) o Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity; ‘Good Child’ morality  Children/adolescents value trust, caring, and loyalty; Adopt parents’ moral standards o Stage 4: Social systems morality  Based on understanding of social order, law, justice, and duty  In order for a community to function, it needs protection by laws that are followed by members Level 3: Post-Conventional Morality  Recognition of alternative moral courses, exploring options, then deciding on personal moral code o Stage 5: Social contract or utility and individual rights  Evaluates validity of actual laws and social systems for preserving and protecting fundamental human rights and values o Stage 6: Universal ethical principles  Develops moral standard based on universal human rights Changes in moral thinking Kohlberg’s Stages  Moral stages appeared later than predicted, and highest reasoning is rare  7th stage?: Cosmic Perspective  Peer interaction critical influence: perspective taking, experience with moral questions and moral conflict
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