april 4 lecture one race exists bc somebody benefits from it. its not accidental, not the result of psychological condition, but a result of political and economic forces that get a benefit from racism. NOT an accident that you have it. consists of individual hate crimes, but arent the main issue. paul robeson appreciated for his courage confronting social justice. april 4th contemporary significance: day that women work 4 months more than a man to receive the same pay historical significance: after 2 years of silence upon us war in vietnam, martin luther king jr went to riverside church in new york and made speech beyond vietnam condemn us policy in vietnam. one year later, he gets assassinated. coincidence or payback? if you get people to doubt, you start getting them to think april 6 lecture two victor jara coup de tat overthrow of state gov what??????? race, ethnicity, nationality: legal systems of classification; all supported by law so they put identities on you. the point is theyre NOT essential identities. you have to learn that these are institutionalized, pervasive structured identities. race: classifying people by physical characteristics; ex: skin color ethnicity: classifying people by (alleged) cultural characteristics; ex: languages, dress, music, food nationality: classifying people by legal membership in a nationstate i.e. by citizenship why do we call countries nationstate rather than just state? modern political thinking upholds idea that state should be democratic, that is, state should be representing the power of the people of the nation living there. the state should be political expression of national will by denying citizenship to immigrants, you pertail rights under the law membership is usually considered for those who are white separate btwn citizen and noncitizen, w citizens only part of the nation divide rule to create classification systems take ppl w common characteristic and break apart their commonality. they were divided by ethnic groups. colonizer would take 1 group and play it off against another, using a divide and conquer policy THESE THREE CONCEPTS: these are political constructions of the state. the legality gives them their force.