Introduction to Philosophy
FALL QUARTER 2016
11 October 2016
❖ Empedocles : believes in the basic substances of the world
➢ The whole world is made up of different things.
❖ 4 elements: fire, air, water, earth
➢ These things come together in different shapes or proportions.
➢ They are not permanent, they are mixed. They are separable.
❖ 2 forces: love and strife
■ Examples of 2 forces that are similar to this: heat and cold.
➢ Love brings things together.
➢ Hate/Strife separates them.
❏ Pseudo-Darwinian argument.
❏ Floating limbs and organs
❖ Thinking and perceiving:
➢ Like by like: to be able to perceive things in the world, we have to have the same
elements in us as the things we are looking at.
❖ Affluences: signs that things in the world send us.
➢ Two takeaways:
■ Need causal process of perception. (we need to talk about how we
perceive things in terms of cause and effect.)
■ Need explanation of perception, period
❖ Main idea is atomism.
➢ The smallest units in the cosmos are atoms.
➢ They are: ■ Invisible
■ Infinite in number.
■ Come together through movements.
■ Stay together until pulled apart.
➢ He believes in a void. There is empty space: n