PHIL 030 Lecture 1: 11 october philsophynotes

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PHIL 030
Schwitzgebel Eric

Introduction to Philosophy FALL QUARTER 2016 11 October 2016 ❖ Empedocles : believes in the basic substances of the world ➢ The whole world is made up of different things. ❖ 4 elements: fire, air, water, earth ➢ These things come together in different shapes or proportions. ➢ They are not permanent, they are mixed. They are separable. ❖ 2 forces: love and strife ■ Examples of 2 forces that are similar to this: heat and cold. ➢ Love brings things together. ➢ Hate/Strife separates them. ❏ Zoogony ❏ Pseudo-Darwinian argument. ❏ Floating limbs and organs ❖ Empedocles ❖ Thinking and perceiving: ➢ Like by like: to be able to perceive things in the world, we have to have the same elements in us as the things we are looking at. ❖ Affluences: signs that things in the world send us. ➢ Two takeaways: ■ Need causal process of perception. (we need to talk about how we perceive things in terms of cause and effect.) ■ Need explanation of perception, period ❖ Democritus: ❖ Main idea is atomism. ➢ The smallest units in the cosmos are atoms. ➢ They are: ■ Invisible ■ Infinite in number. ■ Come together through movements. ■ Stay together until pulled apart. ➢ He believes in a void. There is empty space: n
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