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Lecture 11

MCD BIO 90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Cellular Differentiation, Electrophysiology, Neutrophil

Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology
Course Code
Mitra Hooshmand

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Facts about Cell Transplant and Nature, Nurture, Niche
Before transplant, the stem cell must be differentiated.
CO2 regulation (usually around 5%) is one of the conditions to maintain the health of cultures cells
in vitro.
Cells for transplant can be derived from anywhere (embryos, fetus, iPSCs, adult, etc.)
Progenitors and Precursors are the stage of development from stem cell to differentiated cells.
Here, the cells can either go back or fully differentiate.
Survival/cell death: ES cells younger than fetal-derived
To know where an already differentiated cell was derived, we can test their:
Presence of activated T-cells.
Immune System will still attack these new differentiated stem cells.
Long-term immuno-suppression would be dangerous.
Potential challenges if cell transplantation strategies in auto-immune disorders like diabetes and
Stem Cells should be transplanted after inflammation and neutrophils has gone down.
The higher the number of cells you transplant into a species, the more likely it is that the cells will
promote recovery. However, there is a point (not very high), where too much can be problematic:
many cells die and cause and inflammatory response to get rid of these cells. They die in the first
place because there is limited amount of resource: cell exceed carrying capacity.
If human cells come into contact with animal products, they can express animal proteins.
Thus, it is "Immunogenic" as it causes a response from the immune system when it is placed
into humans.
"Xeno-free" conditions refers to the absence of animal products. The technical term, however,
really means that there is no product from a different species.
To maintain cells in a dish that will later be used for clinical trails so that they don't get rejected by
the body, they must be xeno-free.
Neural stem cells intravenously injected
Most cells attacked by immune system and die
Others, since it was injected in a systematic method (in the blood), they go everywhere.
If the blood-brain barrier is damaged, they can get in.
If the blood-brain barrier is working and healthy, they can't.
Some try to go to the brain, their home. This depends on the blood-brain barrier that
protects the CNS from inflammatory cells. We risk paralysis without such protection.
Living there, it is not difficult for cancer to develop.
Most end up in the lungs because they have the best conditions (37C, humid, etc.).
Intravenous injections (Bad method - local clearly better)
Undifferentiated Cells look like balls.
Differentiated cells look stretched out and have complex shapes.
If you keep growing your cells and then splitting them into new plates, they may get mutated
(karyotypic abnormalities)
Two different species like mice and rats are considered to be discordant to one another.
Discordant indicates high risk of rejection (Opposite is concordant)
Fibroblast are considered feeder layers as they are put below ES stem cells to continuously give
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Stem Cells Page 1
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