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Lecture 12

PSYCH 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Simultaneous Bilingualism, Mirror Test, Working Memory

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Grammatical Development
Syntax: exclusive to humans
Last aspect to develop but continues as we grow older
One year olds can put two words together and convey large ideas
Telegraphic speech: when children are in productive language development they are
constrained by being able to produce one word utterances
Then can combine two words into sentences
E.g. mommy come sit next to me
Child: mommy sit
Children are good at picking selective words to form sentences
Overregularization: related to morphological combining words plus parts (past tense
and plurals)
E.g. play + ed = played
Exceptions to plurals like mouse → mice
Children over use the regular rule of plural and say tooths or mouses instead of
teeth and mice
Recasts & expansions as help from others:
Corrections of children’s syntactical error
Recast: saying the incorrect sentence and correcting it
Research shows that children who are not corrected get to the same
correct state
Expansion: adding complexity
Positive effect of getting the child to elaborate speech
E.g. child and zoo trip
Child was constrained so it is helpful for parent to ask “what did we see”
Child says “elephants”, parents say “yeah we saw elephants at the zoo”
Simultaneous bilingualism: multiple languages learned from birth and therefore no one
language can be considered the first language
Separating languages like having mom speak one and dad speak another does
not help the child separate the languages because the child is doing perceptual
narrowing on their own
Child has tools to facilitate acquisition of languages
Common for children around the world to be bilingual or trilingual
When comparing the monolingual to bilingual the monolingual will have 100
words in the productive category and the bilingual will have 50 in that language
and 50 in the other
During development of their lexicon it takes longer for them to learn and they are
learning two syntactic system
Sequential bilingualism: one language learned at birth and at some other point the
child is introduced to the second; clear cut which came first
One home language and second learned at school
Same cognitive tools as the monologue but have to try harder
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