• Unrealistic expectations
• Taking things personally
• All or nothing thinking
• Rigid thinking
Types of Stress
• Negative Stress
• Positive Stress
• It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems,
skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers.
• Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical
and spiritual health.
• Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the
stimulation to cope with challenging situations.
• Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when
confronting threatening situations.
The Individual & Stress
• Everyone is different, with unique perceptions of, and reactions to, events.
• There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people.
• Some are more sensitive to experiences in childhood, the influence of teachers, parents
and religion etc.
• Most of the stress we experience is self-generated.
• How we perceive life - whether an event makes us feel threatened or stimulated,
encouraged or discouraged, happy or sad - depends on how we perceive ourselves.
• Self-generated stress is something of a paradox, because so many people think of external
causes when they are upset.
• Recognizing that we create most of our own upsets is an important first step towards
coping with them. Physical Reaction to Stress
• Endocrine System: controls your stress response.
o Demands on the physical or mental systems of the body result in hormone
1. Adrenalin and testosterone
• Endocrine responses:
o Increased pupil dilation
o Increased heart rate and blood pressure
o Rapid breathing
o Muscle tenseness
o Increased mental alertness
General Adaptations Syndrome
• Alarm Response: “Fight or Flight”
o reparse the body for immediate action
• Adaptation Phase:
o If the source persists, the body prepares for long-term protection, secreting
hormones to increase blood sugar levels.
o This phase is common and not necessarily harmful, but must include