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Lecture 99

COMM 1000 Lecture 99: Communications Full notes

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Stephen Stifano

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Communications Why is it important: Keeps you alive: when you were 3, parents kept saying something but you didnt listen to it, learn to listen to your parents. Keep each other alive. Thousands of years ago: stumble on something that is scary. Uh-oh reaction. The reaction creates a message to others in your group, body language. The people who did not pick up on the “oh shit” face did not live through the trouble It impacts everything: example: tripping on the way to class, very sensitive to the idea that others are watching, reacting, judging us. It impacts because having a professor that has a lacks of connection to students will not help the students get the point across. Words impact everything: alternative facts can change the way we see things Doing it well is a skill: some are born with a knack for communicating. B/c it goes beyond natural skill, can learn tips and work at it. It is moldable because one does not have choice but to learn it Employers value it: b/c they are starting to realize how the world is changing due to social media and collaborative things (teams). Older employers they are craving people who know how to walk into a room and calm the mood. Human communication: process of managing messages for the purpose of creating shared meaning. Backspaced in a message, is managing them. Successful when on the same page. A transactional process: b/w at least two people Simultaneously sending and receiving messages To and from one another Messages: verbal or nonverbal; intentional or unintentional usually a blend Unintentional: saying it a certain way, could be lying, judgement All at the same time. Channels: the medium through which a message is sent: face to face, telephone, text, etc. Intuitively select a channel if it isn’t a big deal. Often become aware of the channels we need to use when the channel becomes available. Selecting an appropriate channel is important. Display of content in a specific set. Interference (noise): prevents message from being received, or prevents intended meaning from being understood. Two different kinds: technological (loss of cell reception) that can cause problems. Could also be a problem from ourselves such as hard of hearing that can lead to misunderstanding. Semantic understanding: different types of words, colloquials, a casual word that has no meaning to you while to the other person it can be very harmful. Other Factors: listening: biggest deficiency, do the hearing but not the processing part of what they are trying to communicate and how to respond. Feedback: the reaction from listening. How people react by thinking of how the people will react to what we are saying. Time: the texting game, do not text back right away Newonces: get tired of talking all day. Model of Human Communication: move clockwise filters impact you in that it is your background, culture, personality, current mood and emotion filter as a receiver: depends on relationship with the sender. Become cognizant of the whole process. Think bigger: circle is going around and around infinitely go on everywhere Communication Contexts: Intrapersonal: communication within a person all the ways we perceive ourselves and the world Interpersonal communication: communication with another (dyadic) evaluating the context in which two people interact Create an intimate relationship: coworkers, SO, etc. Interviewing: focused on Question-Answer pattern Very aware of our answers, formal setting, training for this Small group communication: 3 or more members of a group influencing one another giant wheel, weird/strange things happen when a group goes out. Seek to achieve a common goal Families, comitties, etc. Public Communication: Addressing a wide audience, goal is to deliver content Organizational Communication: protocols and goals that need to be accomplished. Policies and expectations Health communication: often overlooked. A situation where a doctor needs to give you more about a health problems. Doctor patient interaction, how it is explained could help shape mind set for a certain amount of time Mass communication: through the media, professional communicators, not always entertainment. Elements of effective communication: understanding- what the other person is saying, comprehension Pleasure Attitude influence: involves communicating well Improved relationships Action: to get things done, work place settings, etc. Lecture 2: Studying Communication as a Science Humanisitc Approaches: rhetoric: persuasion, public speaking, debating, look at the language being used. Focuses on language used to persuade others. There are judgment calls. Very subjective, opinion at its heart, educated interpretivist: take a look at specific events in the world and seek understanding. Communication patterns of the people in power. Using background and skill to interpret what they are seeing critical scholars: seek to understand power in any given situation, how that power leads to inequality between those in power and out of power. How it is used and how it leads to inequality. Sometimes use data and paint a picture Nothing says you have to be objective. Nothing says that you have to be unbiased. Social Scientific: uses more of the principles of science qualitative: goal: capture things that are representative of what is going on employs rigorous observational rules Work “in the field” Collect data that are rich in detail and description in-depth interviews, ethnography, participant-observation Quantitative: Seeks to uncover patterns in communication behaviors via numbers employ advanced statistical techniques and rigid testing to support/reject hypothesis Can work “in the field” or in the lab Keep views out of it Each variable becomes a thing and then a map is created and show relationships and correlations. The scientific method: Empirical: all is observe Objective: goal is to remove as much bias as possible, need as many rules and procedures to get rid of leading questions Logical: consistent, rational, and clearly seen from the data. Public: check and balance it. Share it through online resources, other people check by repeating it. Content Analysis: ex. looking at how many acts of violence are on the average tv drama systematic analysis of the the content of communication messages Purposes: describes frequency of a behavior Compares behavior types/rates across different contexts Issues: requires a representative sample Need clear, specific definitions of behaviors, requires coding : multiple judgers to look at the content Limited to studying what is already occurring Survey Examines what people do Relies on self-reports examines relationships between variables Examples: relationship questionnaires Attitude surveys Media Habits Research Issues: need representative sample Questions must be of high-quality Limitations: no control over variables cannot make casual conclusions can only see relationship Self-reports Socialable desire ability disorder Experiment Manipulation of variables Control of other variable/setting Measures effect/outcome of manipulation Issues: goal: drawing casual conclusions Requires random assignment to conditions Limitations: Hard to generalize results from lab environment Artificial setting Limited subject population Requires strong procedure to prevent issues Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle: frames all of research all measurement contains error Reliability: idea of consistency, safely get the result again and again Validity: accuracy/truthfulness of data Lecture 3 Perception Perception: interpreting the sensory experience of the world, assumption by richard wiseman Make a snap judgement in what we are seeing. B/c of past experience and mind have depth perception, mind can see what is happening. Can be wrong though due to our perspective More than meets the eye at an initial glance impossible object: cannot make sense of it forcing the perspective, perspective motivates perception The stupid ass dress Two people can hear the same sentence and have differing of opinion draw upon personal experience, personal perceptions, and quirks to make opinions Selective Attention basketball video: visual explanation of selective attention only have so much capacity to register stimuli through your senses so, we tend to focus on certain things and do that with the expense of other things More emotional= more likely to have selective attention picking out details to notice and others to ignore Filtering: plays into selective attention Perceptual filter: physical/physiological limits upbringing, environment, friends, parents, education: impact on how you view the world. Influence what we get out of the picture, senses Psychological sets: Expectations that shape experiences sensitive to certain kinds of information more than others Triggers, different expectations for a word or phrase due to prior experiences, things that make us perceive things more than others Perception is active: select: certain stimuli, usually intense. Perks someone up repetition causes it: music, good rhythm and repetition something that changes, notice something that changes in the repetition Organize: based on expectations, create some kind of picture Interpret: what we see and assign meaning from them draw conclusions from them Summary: simplify complex information Next part: biases and limitations often lead to errors Attribution: The process of assigning meaning to others’ behaviors ask why people do what they do, constantly read and interpret people all the time Bias: self attribution tends to differ from other attribution act a certain way because of the situation blame it on the situation besides yourself Others act a certain way because of “who they are” Attributions differ as people focus on different information sometimes we focus on the individual sometimes we focus on the context or circumstances Kinds of bias: Dispositional other: overuse of personality reasons (dispositions) with others ex: joe failed the exam because he’s lazy and foolish Self-serving bias: overuse of situational attributions with self I failed because those questions were ridiculous and unfair Impression formation: of others and our selves start to pick up on a bunch of different things to get a perception of a person weighted average: to get an impression of a person Impressions of self: can trip us up on going assessment of what I think I am. Based on physical and psychological perspectives, comes in part from the feedback Self-concept: looking-glass self: comes in part from the feedback, see ourselves the way others see us. self-expansion model: social comparison: the way in which we frame ourselves compared to other people Self-esteem feedback: reinforces it Self-fulfilling prophecy: whether you think you can or can’t, you are probably right. Confidence: more likely to do it. Less confidence: less likely to do it Impressions of others First impressions: the primary effect: what happens first thin slicing: fill out evolution in the first 5 minutes of the course Physical attractiveness nature vs. nurture debate one thing that matters are that more attractive individuals have a better options Expressivenss: males= large smiles, females= eye brows and more facial features Charisma Stereotyping: single most damaging thing we can do Normal reasons: easy to make sense of things by catagorizing things make stereotypes to protect oneself problem comes with the negative connotation Accuracy of perceptions: what matters context interpersonal sensitivety perceived self-confidence intelligence dispositional intelligence: pesonality and behavior Flexible expectations awareness of limitations Verbal Communication a system of symbols and codes used to construct and convey messages use it to create and rely messages and combine them Symbol: words, they usually have no meaning, we made them up, no inherent meaning. But we agree on that meaning, leading to the mental picture Referent: the thing the symbol refers to the object for which that object stands symbol is harder to agree upon while a referent is less concrete but easy to understand Semantic triangle: Symbol is created to represent a referent Symbol symbolizes a thought which refers to a referent Denotative meaning: the dictionary definition the generally agreed upon definition of a word no personal connection to the word Connotative meaning: personal relationship/ interpretive meaning of the word Private meaning: whenever we see a word or phrase it has a personal meaning keep the meaning to ourselves different definitions for the same word internalized Shared meaning: close circle of friends, refer to an event have terms for each other: chupa coto how we build culture and get to know each other Code-switching: different voices and connotative meanings with people we see some overlap: how much overlap depends on the community Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis language shapes how we see the world the words we have in our arsenal influence how we think about things 2 schools of thought strong determinisms: vocab governs how you see the world weak determinism: view the world and everything is influenced by language- more popular Language aids in our memory: how it is described influences how it influences us Language issues: abstract/vague language: different definitions of the same word inferences: make conclusions based on data we don’t have Dichotomies: framing things in opposites, flaws our assertions, bring in expectations equivocal languages: phrases that have multiple meanings Euphemisms: soft language dont like talking in direct terms about comfortable things stand in for things that maybe uncomfortable for us remove some of the humanity of it Words have power: carefully chose your words a general awareness of word choice Sexism and Language: inherit sexism towards certain things more words to describe women than men more positive words to describe men than women have started to correct the language Power and Language: easiest way to give away the idea that people are powerful Disclaimers: “possible” “might be” etc. remove those in an interview undermines our own power Not afraid to use the word “I” Metacommunication: communication about communication discussing the ways in which we communicate be thoughtful in the patterns of communication Listening Listening: a process of receiving, construction meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal meanings better at anticipating what is coming next 3 step process: receiving -> making sense of it -> once interpreted it, we can respond to what is being said. (Same is true for non-verbal messages) Listening vs. Hearing: hearing is a physical process, receiving sound signals Listening is a psychological process where we direct attention to the sound and comprehending what is happening most common thing we listen to is other people Listening matters but it is difficult listening correlates with relationship and work place success harder to and harder to understand different view points in communication: it is always changing moment we take ourselves out of the situation Components: hearing understanding remembering: interpreting evaluating responding Listening styles: action-oriented: trying to make sense of info and whether or not the info is accurate, what should I prioritize focus: what info is present, and what do I need to know grab info out of the whole thing Content-oriented: pick something apart to understand very complicated process in order to make sense of the information want to dive into the content, good for persuasion look at someone else’s positions People-oriented: what we do with our relationships interests in others, when we listen we use what we are hearing to make connections Time-oriented: primary goal is efficiency fast and as clearly as possible: Gibbs and Abby from NCIS Barriers: Physical/Physiological: pain, surrounding noise, fatigue, machincal problems (deaf) Psychological: preoccupied (fight with bff), emotions (happy, sad, etc.) boredom Conflicting objectives: when you care about your bffs date but you’re late to class. Want to get off the phone but be nice Poor Listening habits: poor eye-contact, not letting tell your story, dont respond, interrupting. Increasingly difficult to listen to other people Active listening: three things to indicate that we are actively listening paraphrasing: repeat it back to them in our own words make sense of it and indicate that you are listening reflection: take a moment and say “what did I just hear?” “Why did they say that?” Ask questions Improve listening: Get the point of the message Paying attention Isolate the main points or ideas in any conversation C.A.R.E: aerobic listening Concentrate Acknowledge Respect Empathize: understand why they said that Creative Project 1000 words photography project take 2 photographs which are meant to exemplify my uconn experience: think consciously, how to make them look good and meaning in what the pictures show each photo will have a 1 sentence caption that says something about what the caption depicts write 1 reflective paragraph: why you took these photos, what they communicate and what the content means to you Nonverbal Communication Definition: the use of objects, action, sounds, time, and space to convey meaning Gestault: all together at the same time, in one moment something is off, believe nonverbals over verbals generally spontaneous 65% of meaning is nonverbal Two types of nonverbal: vocal: sigh, sounds but not words being conveyed, changes of pitch and tone, Nonvocal: facial expressions, Nonverbal will _____ Verbal Compliment Regulate Substitutes for Contradicts Illustrates Methods of Nonverbal Paralanguage example: the role pronunciation and tone plays in our language Placing emphasis in different words never guarantee that people will agree different emphasis on different words means different things Objectives the clothes we wear can communicate different things pictures on the wall: conversation pieces Proxemics space, distance, and territory to communicate a lot Marking their territory Architects: for all the space lecturers are afforded until the lecturer goes into our territory sit in the back: it makes the people in the back uncomfortable because it invades their space E.T. Hall: four different distances: Public: 12’ or more Social: 4’-12’ Personal: 18”-4’: one on one or one on two Intimate: 0-18”: Equate proximity to intimacy Orientation how we are structered: head and foot of the table competition: formal setting: across from me is competition Next to each other: cooperative Having a casual conversation: standing open up inviting, open forum bad thing or important is said: open goes to closed forum Haptics: touch communication to show emotion control sexual/flirtation playful accidental signals affiliation relationships dominance: usually associated violence horsing around: fighting but laughing males: more forms of touch sexual female: less forms of touch sexual Kinesics: general movement gestures and facial expresessions Facial: intentional and unintentional same facial expression: two different meanings cultural differences Body movement and gesture: culture is very important: turkey: ok sign means asshole iran: thumbs up tells someone where to stick it Emblems: physical gestures that replace words Illustrators: moving around while talking, amplify the story, visualize the elements of the story Regulators: pace conversations Adaptors: nervous ticks that help deal with anxiety paying with keys, adapt to the nerves I am doing Affect Displays: the show of emotion: intentional or not Oculesics: eye gazes and eye contact eye contact: telling a story tends not to look people in the eye : listening means a lot of eye contact to say I am listening : attraction :show power or dominance, daggers : Women make more eye contact than men Chromonemics what time communicates being early and being late amplifier to the verbal communication time cultures: monochromic or polychromic monochromic: one thing at a time, interruptions and time commitments are precious Polychromic: multiple things at once, people more important than that commitment social media made us more polychromic than being focused on one thing The communication of emotion: Verbal communication vs. nonverbal: thin line between the two Talk more about human emotion in communication emotion was ignored because it is very complicated ties into heart and bodies: regulate our survival instincts new tech: easier to study emotion relationship to nonverbal: easier to control nonverbal if we are conscious of our emotions can trigger physical responses Emotional Communication: the minute signals of affect, attention, approach/avoidance, dominance/submission signals help to shape social Must be studied by studying the individual within the social system subtle feeling help shape social order Directly related: baring of teeth for a dog (territorial) evolutionary responses hard wired into it Spontaneous communication: not using symbols to compose a message actual reaction, communicates something based upon a biologically-shared signal system nonvoluntary involves signs, not symbols non propositional (never false) Mainly right brained Symbolic communication A socially shared system voluntary involves symbols (arbitrary) Propositional (can be false) Mainly left-brained: rational parts of the brain INCLUDES SOME NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS Spontaneous vs. Symbolic: the things we create and compose vs our natural tendencies Three types of emotion 1. Bodily adaptation and Maintenance of Homeostasis includes fight-or-flight responses and need for food/water/oxygen 2. The external expression of motivational/emotional states useful for social coordination, sexual reproduction, dominance/submission 3. The subject experience of motivational/emotional states useful for self-regulation, reflection, learning. A monitoring system for humans 6 basic emotions: primary affects happy, anger, sad, surprise, fear, disgust see them and interpret: hard wired into us disgust is a social notion: get other people involved Universally understand People described where they feel the emotion on their body: used heat maps to dictate Nonverbal sending accuracy: if the person being video taped has clear reactions, perfectly appropriate face when something happens Nonverbal receiving ability: trying to guess what the person was looking at based on the facial emotions Pseudospontaneous communication: sometimes we have to fake emotions because we think it will help. One that is most appropriate Deception of other: lie to people, faking emotional response. of self: emotional tactic, telling yourself a lie, emotional process repression: block emotions or events so we can move on Fake it till you make it Deception crash course: Everybody lies Humans are lied to as many as 200 times per day Humans detect lies with just 54% accuracy: often think we can ID it just a hare better in reality Types of lies: fabrication exaggeration white lies Barefaced lies (did you actually just say that?) Lies of Omission Kind-Hearted lies vs.self serving lies Avoiding eye contact? Not a sure sign Emotional education: more useful punishment for children: talk it out pointing out the emotions someone is feeling and telling how they deal with it understand, deal, and label how to deal with it learn from adults, siblings, and media PART 2: INTERPERSONAL Interpersonal Communications Increasing convergence with what is happening on screen and in relationships Interpersonal: communication that occurs b/w at least two interdependent parties: students and professors It is a transaction, could be parents, boss, bf: you need something from them in some way shape or form Norm: guidelines that limit and direct our behavior Help make behavior predictable It is how we speak to each other Helps us frame the world: very hard to be a part of and stressful, make it more predictable Restricted codes Roles: set of behaviors that applies to a certain subclass of people Father, husband, manager, instructor: certain expectations May have to fake it till you make it Give predictability Expected roles: how you should play the role, certain characteristics Enacted roles: how the actual boss does all those things Interrole conflict: occupying two roles at once Tutor and friend at once: can get frustrating Intrarole conflict: occupying one role, have different thoughts on what it is one thinks the relationship is casual while the other thnks it is a serious Disclosure: sharing things about you, deep from within to create a deep relationship Self-disclosure: intimate relationship, conscious decision Why we reveal: clarity, emotional (need to get off our chests), share information to improve impressions (usually in the early stages of dating to) Keep to ourselves: risks to opening up Put a ton of trust in other people Appropriateness: what is TMI Depends on relationship Can make other uncomfortable Jokari window: has to do with disclosive reality: Open quadrant: known to others and known to self Blind: Known to others and not known to self Hidden: Not known to others but known to self Unknown: not known to others and not known to self Potentional: never thought I could do that I just did Blocks aren’t all the same size Social Penetration theory: peel back layers of ourselves until we get to the core to one person as we build the relationship Three different ways Breadth: cover a range of topics Depth: how personal or intimate the details are Frequency: building a friendship Uncertainty reduction theory: why do people communicate, to reduce uncertainty Uncertainty: raises information-seeking Reduces intimacy: realize there is stuff we don’t know, it is very risky Reduced by similarity Ask questions to reduce it Uncertainty reduction: Lowers jealousy Improves relational maintenance Attachment Theory: How this influence between the caregiver and the chold can affect how the child creates relationships. Our care at an early age can impact how we build relationships early in life. Three different attachment styles Secure: 70% of children, positive model of themselves and others. Have positive views of others. Caregiver stimulates the child, responds to needs, and show they care Avoidant: 20%, negative model of others, look at other skeptically, caregiver overstimulate (helicopter) or understimulate (neglect). Cannot depend on anyone Anxious-Ambivalent: 10%, negative model of themselves. Caregiver is inconsistent, shower them with love and then stressed out and gone. Research: brought kids into the lab (play room) Does the kid explore and play: secure- yes, avoidant-no, A-A: yes and no Attachment in Adults: Secure: confortable and intimacy, love trust and happiness, easy to get to know, warm relationships with parents, farely adjusted Avoidant: fear intimacy, not very accepting of romantic partners A-A: yearn for close relationships, want to feel love, when get: consistently worried that they will go away- push too hard and cycle continues Dialectical Tension: Two connected and contradictory needs Autonomy vs. connection: talking about being own person and succeed and see that is lonely and still want to be with others Expressoveness and privacy: desire to share things with others on the other hand, want to keep somethings to myself cause it isn’t their business Change vs. Predicatbility: get bored of 4 years of college 10 mins in of college: I miss home Where to? Over lay of what people study Communication in Relationships Human Attraction: the moment one or both realizes that there is something going on, a spark. True not only in romantic relationships There is physical Sexual Social: usually outside or potential romantic relationhship Drawn to, want to converse with Relational attraction: be with them because of the relationship Task orented attraction: someone you want to work with Forces of Attraction Liking: general idea, a seed for it. Positive feelings Similarity: have things in common, first date conversation, finding someone like you to start it Reciprocity: realize somebody likes you and then you like them more Give the idea a test drive Proximity: co-workers date, put people in a confind environment, the options become limited. Attractiveness: tend to look at people early on, theyre attractive therefore I am acctracted to them. It is a fluid concept Relational Development: complicated thing b/c there is a lot of trust and what we invest and the risk raises the stakes. The feelings and emotions we get is the best high Stage model of relational development 5 steps leading to commitment: 1. Initiating: awkward introductions, chatting, process of getting to know each other. Ask questions to clarify a. Can begin the awkward realm of “go talk to her”, etc. 2. Experimenting: first step goes well, take some chances a. Can you do this: yes/no etc. b. Might start with a date or number c. Can be a jumping off point: want to be with them or not d. Taking chances getting to know people in a way we are not used to 3. Intensifying a. Things are starting to feel real, staying for a long time b. “There is something between us” c. a lot of endorphin release, crazy obsessive feeling d. Start to think, I am in love. More of an infatuation e. Evolutinary basis: reproduce 4. Integrating: start treating you as a couple, tell Luis things and know because they tell them, have a drawer at his place. Feel like a unit, as part as something rather than two individuals 5. Bonding: deeply emotionally attached with, they are integral part of your life. The precipse of commitment, think seriously and in rational thought about love. It is exciting, nervous, intense and takes a lot of energy. Frought with parel 5 steps leading to termination: not all these stages have to occur at once 1. Differentiating: things are fine, focusing on other things now. Maybe there is that night where you did the laundry and he didn’t put it away. Talking about me vs. you, think about ourselves and not the relationship a. Know it has gotten ugly: when you say what you are doing and he is doing something different. A lot of “I” language and less “we” 2. Circumscribing: not talking about certain things to avoid a fight. Avoid important conversations because they can start a fight, walking on eggshells around other people 3. Stagnating: together because we are just together, no more intimacy, floating through the relationship a. Most friends know before we do that it is over 4. Avoiding: interactions suck, not wanting to talk to each other 5. Terminating Stages: slide down or skip a step: Have some false starts Sometimes we go back Communicating in Relationships: Content and relational message dimension: what we are actually saying and how it fits in the relationship itself Confirming vs. Disconfirming: things we can say in a relationship to remind them that they are together We’ll see what happens: disconfirming, no garuntees Supportive vs. Defensive: part of virtually every relationship Trust, Lying, Deception: everyone lies, are the lies for the benefit or could they put the relationship at risk Styles of Love: Eros: passionate, very phyical Ludus: game-playing, tease Storge: friendship-based Pragma: practical, person makes sense to me Mania: Possessive, dependent- knowing where we are at all times Agape: selfless, all-giving, do anything for you Not everyone fits in just one Martial Styles: Traditional: conventional attitudes towards marraiage Interdependent use of time and space Moderate conflict on “big” issues Most satisfied Independent Less conventional attitudes: still two separate people Use time and space independently More conflict- open and assertive (thing you are doing is messing me up). More novel approach of two individuals comign tog
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