Theories and Measures of Globalization.docx

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University of Connecticut
GEOG 3100
Debarchana Ghosh

GEOG 1100: Theories and Measures of Globalization The Early Works  Most early theories were fairly simple and focused on only one or two aspects of globalization. o Unidimensional, linear, with primary focus on economics. Early Ideas on Globalization  Many famous early social scientists explored ideas related to globalization o Durkheim, Marx,Weber  Marxists theory had a clear idea of how globalization would take place as a result of class warfare (owners moving abroad to search for profits). The Global Village – Marshall McLuhan  World as become compressed because of advances in types of communications  Globe is now no more than a global village  Types of communications in Global Village o Oral – short distance interactions o Writing/painting – ideas can cover distance easier o Electronic – stretch social interaction around globe  In the introduction to Understanding Media, McLuhan sums this u writing, “today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.” Since 1980, scholarly examination of globalization has changed:  Multidimensional and multi-causal approach (transportation, economy, communication, and soon, social media).  Intensification of global interconnectedness.  Culture/environment - central factors in the current acceleration of the globalization process  Substantial disagreement as to how globalization is best conceptualized, how one should this about its causal dynamics, and how one should characterize its structural consequences. Hyper-Globalists, Skeptics, and Transformationalists  Hyper-globalists o Unprecedented era of change o Single global market which functions through transnational networks of production, trade, and finance o People who love globalization (neoliberals/capitalists) take this view. o New transnational relationships have evolved o New global elite that believes in benefits of neoliberalism, consumerism, and global governance. o Globalization is an unstoppable juggernaut.  Skeptics o Is this really a new era? o Economy no different than in past  More trade around 1900. o Nation-state remains central political actor o We have several nation blocks dominate global economy  East Asia, US, Europe  Not one global economy o Actual changes are the result of capitalist elite (G8) trying to dominate global markets o New and different version of colonial era politics and economics  Transformationalists o What is taking place falls between two extremes o “Globalization is real and is restricting society profoundly.” o Globalization is geographically contingent, and because people are involved, there can be no pre-determined outcome. o Nation-states still around, but role has changed. o Economic organizations transcending national borders o Fates of distant groups are interlinked in ways that are different from the past. o International (WTO, IMF, etc) and transnational political organizations wielding more power. What is the difference between transnational and international actors?  International interactions often thought to involve states and governments (nations).  Transnational interactions involve non-state actors like TNCs and NGOs (individuals)  Both organizations operate at a global scale. Hyper-globalist Skeptical Transformational What is happening? The global era Increased Unprecedented regionalism interconnectedness Central Features Global civilization Core-led regionalism “Thick globalization,” high based on global makes globe less intensity/extensity/velocity capitalism and interconnected than of globalization th governance late 19 century. Driving Processes Technology, Nation states and “modern” forces in fusion capitalism, and the market human ingenuity Patterns of Collapsing of Core-periphery New networks of differentiation welfare structure reinforced inclusion/exclusion that differentials over leading to greater are more complex than old time as market global inequality patterns equalizes Conceptualization of Borderless world Regionalization, Time-space compression globalization and perfect internationalization, and distanciation that markets and imperfect rescale interaction markets Implications for the Eroded or made Strengthened and Transformed governance nation-state irrelevant made more relevant patterns and new state imperatives Historical Path Global civilization Neo-imperialism and Indeterminate – depends based on new civilizational clashes on construction and action transnational elite through actions of of nation-states and civil and cross class blocks and society groups neoliberal agenda Core Position Triumph of Powerful states Transformation of capitalism and the create globalization governance at all scales market over agenda to and new networks of nation-states perpetuate their power dominant position How to Measure Globalization  Extensity of global networks o Refers to the widening and geographic expansion of connections or netwroks between peoples and societies on the planet. o As communications and transport improve, people can interact with people in farther regions o Stretching of social and economic activities across frontiers such that events, decisions, and activities in one region of the world can come to have significance for individuals and communities in distant regions of the world o Other hard evide
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