GEOG 1100: Theories and Measures of
The Early Works
Most early theories were fairly simple and focused on only one or two aspects of globalization.
o Unidimensional, linear, with primary focus on economics.
Early Ideas on Globalization
Many famous early social scientists explored ideas related to globalization
o Durkheim, Marx,Weber
Marxists theory had a clear idea of how globalization would take place as a result of class
warfare (owners moving abroad to search for profits).
The Global Village – Marshall McLuhan
World as become compressed because of advances in types of communications
Globe is now no more than a global village
Types of communications in Global Village
o Oral – short distance interactions
o Writing/painting – ideas can cover distance easier
o Electronic – stretch social interaction around globe
In the introduction to Understanding Media, McLuhan sums this u writing, “today, after more
than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system in a global
embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.”
Since 1980, scholarly examination of globalization has changed:
Multidimensional and multi-causal approach (transportation, economy, communication, and
soon, social media).
Intensification of global interconnectedness.
Culture/environment - central factors in the current acceleration of the globalization process
Substantial disagreement as to how globalization is best conceptualized, how one should this
about its causal dynamics, and how one should characterize its structural consequences.
Hyper-Globalists, Skeptics, and Transformationalists
o Unprecedented era of change o Single global market which functions through transnational networks of production,
trade, and finance
o People who love globalization (neoliberals/capitalists) take this view.
o New transnational relationships have evolved
o New global elite that believes in benefits of neoliberalism, consumerism, and global
o Globalization is an unstoppable juggernaut.
o Is this really a new era?
o Economy no different than in past
More trade around 1900.
o Nation-state remains central political actor
o We have several nation blocks dominate global economy
East Asia, US, Europe
Not one global economy
o Actual changes are the result of capitalist elite (G8) trying to dominate global markets
o New and different version of colonial era politics and economics
o What is taking place falls between two extremes
o “Globalization is real and is restricting society profoundly.”
o Globalization is geographically contingent, and because people are involved, there can
be no pre-determined outcome.
o Nation-states still around, but role has changed.
o Economic organizations transcending national borders
o Fates of distant groups are interlinked in ways that are different from the past.
o International (WTO, IMF, etc) and transnational political organizations wielding more
What is the difference between transnational and international actors?
International interactions often thought to involve states and governments (nations).
Transnational interactions involve non-state actors like TNCs and NGOs (individuals)
Both organizations operate at a global scale.
Hyper-globalist Skeptical Transformational
What is happening? The global era Increased Unprecedented
Central Features Global civilization Core-led regionalism “Thick globalization,” high
based on global makes globe less intensity/extensity/velocity
capitalism and interconnected than of globalization th
governance late 19 century.
Driving Processes Technology, Nation states and “modern” forces in fusion
capitalism, and the market
Patterns of Collapsing of Core-periphery New networks of
differentiation welfare structure reinforced inclusion/exclusion that
differentials over leading to greater are more complex than old
time as market global inequality patterns
Conceptualization of Borderless world Regionalization, Time-space compression
globalization and perfect internationalization, and distanciation that
markets and imperfect rescale interaction
Implications for the Eroded or made Strengthened and Transformed governance
nation-state irrelevant made more relevant patterns and new state
Historical Path Global civilization Neo-imperialism and Indeterminate – depends
based on new civilizational clashes on construction and action
transnational elite through actions of of nation-states and civil
and cross class blocks and society
groups neoliberal agenda
Core Position Triumph of Powerful states Transformation of
capitalism and the create globalization governance at all scales
market over agenda to and new networks of
nation-states perpetuate their power
How to Measure Globalization
Extensity of global networks
o Refers to the widening and geographic expansion of connections or netwroks between
peoples and societies on the planet.
o As communications and transport improve, people can interact with people in farther
o Stretching of social and economic activities across frontiers such that events, decisions,
and activities in one region of the world can come to have significance for individuals
and communities in distant regions of the world
o Other hard evide