NURS 3110 Lecture 7: Lecture 7

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7 Feb 2017

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Gram and Bacilli (Rods)
Endotoxins are more widespread
Exotoxins are specific
Spore forming
Might find predominantly spores outside the body
Could look like a mix
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) - sporeforming
Primarily disease of animals, humans rarely affected
Spores enter via injured skin or mucosa
Necrotic ulcer with edema
Ex: imported goods → inhalation: wool sorters (disease hemorrhagic
pneumonia)and leather
Hemorrhagic = induce bleeding
Pulmonary - breathing organism in and getting infection
Necrotic ulcer - localized infection developed by tough (skin dying/black)
Anthrax toxin
Travels in the blood and engulfed by macrophages
Causes massive macrophage death
Infection, lungs
Agent of biological warfare
Specimens: fluids, pus from lesions, sputum, blood
Mediastinal widening of lymph node = inflammation of lymph nodes
Treatment / Control
Treat with penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin - give early
Prevent by vaccinating, dispose of animal carcass properly
Gas hides, hair, bone products with ETO to kill SPORES
Purified toxoid
6 inoculations over 1.5 years (5 different shots then need annual booster)
Used for military personnel who are at high risk of exposure
Bacillis cereus - sporeforming
Food poisoning (heat stable exotoxin) in rice, potato, meat
Heated will remain stable
Spores survive short periods of cooking, reheating, germinate at room
Enterotoxin has weak pathogenicity in healthy individuals
Infections in immunocompromised, intubated individuals, drug addicts
Eye infections associated with trauma, surgery
Alcohol does not kill spores!
Clostridium perfringens - sporeforming
Problems with vascular flow
Diabetic patients
Lack blood flow and O2 delivery
Strict anaerobe (does NOT like O2 environment)
Catalase negative
Toxins that help spread infection - gas gangrene
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