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Lecture 2

PNB 2264 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Endocytosis, Paracellular Transport, Heredity

Physiology and Neurobiology
Course Code
PNB 2264

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PNB 2264
Day 2 Notes
What is a cell?
- Basic structural and functional unit of the human body
o Capable of rebuilding the human body from a single cell
- Cells
o Maintain homeostasis (intracellular and extracellular)
o Grow (mitosis and meiosis) and differentiate
o Produce proteins and macromolecules
o Communicate with other cells
o Produce and use energy
o Produce tissues and organs
- Cells
o Four basic types in humans, with 200 variations
o All cells share a plasma membrane (outer wall) and cytosol (fluid)
o Cells differ
Cell Physiology
- Normal cell functions
o Movement and support (internal and external)
o Production of energy (glucose, free fatty acids and ATP) and use of energy
o Growth
- Roughly 10^14 cells with 10^15 symbiotic microbes
- So why are we so many cells
o Not all cells have to do the same thing
o Cells express a different number of genes
o Cells are farther away from the outside of the body
o It costs less energy/cell to operate
- Costs
o Special types of cell to cell contact
o Systems to control how cells function
Plasma membrane
- Hydrophobic, selective barrier
o Phospholipid bilayer, polar and non-polar ends
o Self organizes into bilayer (remember structure dictates)
Other properties
- Phospholipids are fluid at 37*C
o They move amongst themselves
o Very hard to move between faces of the membrane
o Need enzymes known as flippase, floppase and scramblase
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