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Lecture 25

PNB 2264 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Brown Adipose Tissue, Peptide Hormone, Lipogenesis

Physiology and Neurobiology
Course Code
PNB 2264

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Notes Day 25
Endocrinology: Final Points
- Testing center
- 70 questions
o 10 from first and 10 from second modified
o 50 questions on the 8 lectures since the last exam
o curving final grade to make average of class is 78 or 79
o does not give C- (70 = C)
- info goes into hypothalamus which sends signaled to the pituitary
- PHIH (dopamine) (prolactin hormone inhibitory hormone) inhibits Prl release
- TRH and a possible PHRH (prolactin hormone releasing hormone) stimulate Prl Release
- Neurotransmitters an act as hormones because they can go into the blood
- When they travel through blood to a target cell they are classified as a hormone
- 22 kDa protein, 198 amino acids
o over 300 functions
o fluid balance
o milk production
o controls fluid inside womb
o all about fluid balance
o inhibited by dopamine (PHIH)
- Receptor is RTKase
- Stimuli + (stress, sleep TRH, PrRP)
- Stimuli (prolactin, PHIH)
- Both stimuli go to hypothalamus
- Then pituitary PRLbreastsucking from baby CNS back to start as this is a
- Positive feedback loop
- Only positive feedback loops in humans are involved in reproduction
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone
- Stimulates the release of LH/FSH
o Target organs are gonads ovaries and testes
- LH luteinizing hormone
o Affects growth and development of eggs/sperm
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o Stimulates steroidogenesis
Producing steroids that are needed by reproductive system
- FSH follicle stimulating hormone
o Follicular growth in females (how eggs are produced)
o Sperm development in males
- Initially all negative feedback loops, later on become positive feedback loop
- Discussed as part of reproduction
Adipose tissue
- Site of energy storage, insulation, protection
- Endocrine tissue
o Metabolism, weight and reproduction
o Adipocytes store fat and produce endocrine hormone cells
- Energy balance
o How much energy you have stored in your body
o Send messages to your brain saying you have too little or too much stored
o Controls appetite
o If you don’t have enough stored energy your brain will get a signal saying you are
hungry because your body doesn’t have enough energy stored
o Example
Low body fat female athletes don’t get their periods because they are
unable to carry a baby due to the lack of energy stored
- Weight, metabolism, reproduction
- Peptide hormone
o Lack obesity
o Index of nutritional status
o Controls hypothalamus appetite center
o Increase metabolism
o Body temperature
- Mouse colony had lack of leptin peptide and became extremely obese
- Once injected with leptin, lost the weight as their appetites changed
- Appetite also controlled by hypothalamus
- Increases metabolism and body temperature
- As temp goes up appetite goes down
- Leptin comes to hypothalamus two neuron families 1) releases neuropeptide Y (NPY)
releases sensation of hunger through Anandamide (you get the munchies from weed
because THC stimulates these neurons to release NPY 2) alpha MSH releasing
neurons gives you the sense of fullness
- Discovered in 2001
o Associated with obesity
o Though to increase insulin resistance
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