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Lecture 23

PNB 2264 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland

Physiology and Neurobiology
Course Code
PNB 2264

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Notes Day 23
Signal Transduction
- Hormone is a message
- Must be understood by a protein (only a protein can do this)
- Machinery is biochemical (things can happen at a fast clip)
- Water soluble hormone
o Water soluble cannot enter the cell
o Receptor has to be in cell membrane (100%)
o Two classes
G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)
Not an enzyme
7 transmembrane receptor (7 TMS)
passes through membrane 7 times, hormone bind to outer loops
cuz it cant pass through the cell membrane
protein inside is GTP (G protein coupled receptor)
Hormone + GPCR, protein is dividing roughly into thirds and an
alpha subunit comes out with GTP bound to it
Activates enzymes
Different protein hanging out towards the end, adenylate cyclase,
converts ATP to CAMP
o Only makes this in response to hormones binding to cell
Hormone cause receptor to change shape which causes the
adenylate cyclase to activate and make CAMP
o Binds to regulatory component and causes it to break
apart into 2 regulatory components and 2 free catalytic
units (kinases)
o ATP ADP + tyrosine or serine or histidine or threonine
o Enzyme transfers phosphate from ATP to one of the amino
PKA, activated by cyclic AMP (CAMP)
Receptor tyrosine kinase
End terminus on outside that comes through membrane once
hormone binds to outside receptor to two receptors, causes those
two receptors to come together and stick to one another, goes
through process of autophophorylate on tyrosine amino acids
o gets phosphates added to it
o that is the signal carried by this system
o fat soluble hormones mostly binds to inside of cell
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