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Lecture 2

HIST 8 Lecture 2: Ancient American Civilizations: The Inkas (1430s-1532)

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1. THE INKA EMPIRE: INTRODUCTION a. Tawantinsuyu, capital: CUZCO (the navel of the world) center b. Quechua language c. Inka Expansion: Defeat of the Chankas by Pachakuti Inka > 1438 i. Largest state in the Western Hemisphere ii. Population: 11 million by 1530s d. Dominant group; largest state e. No writing, markets, or wheels f. Successful system where no one starved g. Did not last after 400 years 2. THE SETTING: A LAND OF EXTREMES a. Only 2 of land in Peru is arable nd b. Andes Cordillera: most rugged (2 highest in the world) c. Coast (the driest in the world) d. Selva or rain forest (excess of rainfall) e. Mastering the environment: a) Agricultural techniques: Andenes, b) Network of roads and bridges f. Took advantages of resources (irrigation, terraces, etc.) 3. THE FORERUNNERS (1,000 B.C. 1400 A.D) a. Highlands: Chavn > Tiawanaku >Wari b. Coast: Moche> Chim c. All of them are theocratic states that priests ruled 4. SOCIETY, POLITICS AND RELIGION a. The Inka Panaqas (noble clansroyal families) b. Kurakas chiefs, lords, elite; exempt from labor c. The runas (common people) d. The yanas (slaves) black e. State religion: Sun (Inti) Temple of the Sun (Qorikancha) mummy cult mummified dead rulers f. Colonies gave access to resources redistribution and tribute (wellorganized) g. Community = extended family with the same lineage 5. THE INKA STATE: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION a. Inka State level: a. No markets, a redistributive state materials provided by the state with no currency b. Tribute in labor: mita (labor turn) c. Storehouses for tributefood (qollqas, or collcas) d. A complex bureaucracy e. The quipus knotted cords to keep record of things like history, transactions, calendarscelestial movements (different colors and textures)
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