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Psych 1 Discussion 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  Wilhelm von Osten and his horse “Clever Hans”  Thought horse was mathematical genius  Trainer was unconsciously giving visual clues to give horse answer  Now called “clever hans syndrome” “observer expectancy effect”  Facilitated Communication  Autistic individuals use facilitated communication to get thoughts across  Many/most autistic individuals are quite intelligent, but are stuck in “bad” bodies  FC also works for other disabilities such as down syndrome  In early 1990’s, many autistic kids using FC were reporting sexual abuse by family members  QUESTION: How might we decide whether what is typed on the keyboard originates with the student? o Facilitators typing for the autistic child o 180 trials of Syracuse psychologists and scientists showed that facilitators were unconsciously controlling typing  Syracuse university still has an FC center, despite being completely discredited by major autism/psychology associations  Ideomotor effect  Ouija board  Movement and behavior is altered by one’s subconscious thoughts Extrasensory Perception 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  Purported kinds of ESP  Psychic reading  Psychic healing  Telepathy  Clairvoyance  Precognition  Psychokinesis  Psychics use tricks to get people to believe them  Manipulate people  Look for signs from them  “barnum statements” (there’s something for everyone) o “you had an accident when you were a child involving water” o “you have a box of old unsorted photographs in your house”  Miss Cleo  Jamaican born; psychic readings on t.v.  Ended up not being Jamaican; made billions of dollars; caused people to go into debt  Daryl Bem’s “Retroactive Causation” studies  Cornell university  Top prestigious psych journal  9 experiments of 1,000 psych students researching psych powers Midterm Review 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  know T.A.’s initials: AG  Thursday October 27, 12:30 pm Campbell Hall 50 MC questions  NO SECTION NEXT WEEK   Mind-brain problem  Monism – mind and brain same thing  Dualism – mind separate from, but controls brain and body  Nature vs. nurture issue  Which has more influence in end product?  Do our genes make us us, or does our environment make us us?  Twin studies: twins adopted by different families  lots in common, but slightly different depending on upbringing by families  Inductive reasoning  Specific to general  Begin with a set of observations, find patter, induce general rule  Deductive reasoning  General to specific  How we test hypothesis  Begin with set of premises and facts  Apply general rules of logic  Derive conclusion  Neuron  Cell body: coordinates basic functions  Dendrites: receive information  Axons: sends information out via axon terminals  Receptors: areas for neurotransmitter to bind to the receiving cell and take action  Synapses: tiny space between the axon terminal of one cell and the dendrite of another that neurotransmitter must travel across  Action potential  Neuron receives signals from dendrites  Go down axon to send signals  Negative charge inside, positive outside  when switches to negative on outside and positive on inside, that’s when the signal gets pushed down the axon  Wave of electrical discharge that travels along the axon to terminals o Stimulates neurotransmitter release o Neurotransmitter binds to receptor sites of other neurons o Next neuron is excited or inhibited and my result in generating its own action potential allowing for further communication  Language  Nonfluent Broca’s aphasia o Broken speech but comprehension intact o “cookie jar… fall over… chair… water.”  Fluent Wernicke’s aphasia o Word salad but comprehension missing o “this is a boy and that’s a boy an that’s a thing. And this is going off soon, this is a… a place that mostly in kitchen.”  Lobes  Frontal lobe o strategic thinking o Short term memory o Language o Social cognition (phineas gage’s frontal lobe damage (pole through head)  Creative thinking issues with damage  Behavioral changes  Temporal lobe o Hearing o Long term memory o Language o Face/object recognition  Prosopagnosia: inability to recognize faces  Difficulty concentrating  Changes in sexual interest  Difficulty understanding spoken words  Occipital lobe o Visual functions o Pattern recognition o Blindsight: cannot report seeing visual stimuli  Parietal lobe o Sensation and perception o Binding problem: “How is the unity of conscious perception is brought aout by the distributed activities of the central nervous system?” o Neglect syndrome: ignore their left side after right parietal damage  Split brain patients  Which side of the brain is responsible for language?  LEFT = LANGUAGE o LL  When a picture is presented in the LEFT VISUAL FIELD o Information sent to RIGHT SIDE  Effects language  Hearing  Frequency – number of vibrations of a sound wave per second o Pitch is perception of frequency  Amplitude – intensity of a sound wave o Loudness is our perception of amplitude  Conduction deafness o Inner ear bones do not adequately transmit sound to the cochlea  Nerve deafness o Cochlear hair cells, or auditory nerve do not hear properly or are damaged  Vision  Lens – varies in thickness o Accommodation for focus at different distances  Retina – contains photoreceptors o Rods: concentrated in periphery of the retina  Dim lighting, grayscale vision o Cones: more central, highest concentration in the fovea where vision is more acute  Well lit, color vision, fine detail o Blind spot – where the optic nerve exits the eye, there are no receptors  no vision  Three theories of color vision o Trichromatic theory: we have three cone receptors  Red, green, blue o Opponent-process theory: we see color through opposing actions that contrast one color with another  we can only see colors separately  No green, but blue/yellow o Retinex theory (think retina and cortex)  Color is constructed by our brain and depends on multiple circumstances  You can look at a red apple under different lighting, and although it looks a different color, we still know it’s red  Phantom limb  Continuing sensations including pain in a limb long after it has been amputated  *NOTE: KNOW HOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO FEEL PHANTOM LIMB SENSATIONS*  gate theory of pain  pain messages must pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord, that an block the messages of pain o rubbing an injury makes it go away (can close pain messages to spinal cord  pain decreased)  circadian rhythms  1 day = 24.2 hours  controlled by genes  reset by sun (you will recover from jet lag; you may never get used to the night shift)  sleep deprivation  2 or more nights without sleep leads to o progressive cognitive, motor, immune function impairment o microsleeps  can temporarily alleviate depression ( or trigger mania)  REM rebound on resuming sleep  REM sleep  Rapid eye movements  20-25% of average night’s sleep o paradoxical  light and deep sleep o EEG resembling wakefulness o Heightened physiological activity/sexual tissue erect to keep them healthy o Striate muscle tone extremely relaxed  Associated with vivid dreams SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS  Rather than accepting the complicated and unfounded assumption that Clever Hans could perform arithmetic, scientists decided that the horse was responding to the faces of the audience. This simplified explanation for Hans’ behavior is an example of:  An untenable theory  Burden of proof  A replicable theory  Parsimonious theory Mental Disorders 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  what is a mental disorder?  Problems in thinking and/or behavior that are disabling or a potential danger to others or self  About 25% of us will have a mental disorder in our lifetime  Most disorder arise unexpectedly and for no good reason  How many mental disorders are there?  Diagnostic and statistical manual for Mental Disorder (DSM) is the “mental disorder bible”  Disorders are diagnosed form signs (visible from how patient presents) and symptoms (what the patient experiences)  Symptoms: mood, drug taking or drinking, eating, gambling, sexual behavior, etc.  Signs: change in behavior, etc.  Mental disorders in general  Anyone can have a mental disorder  Run in families  Often wrongly named an embarrassment or shameful; ARE NOT a sign of weakness or moral failure though  Many mental disorders = physical disorders because they’re disturbances in the brain  People could have a pre-disposition to a mental disorder, and often times an environmental change causes the disorder to come out and be active  Common mental disorders  Mood disorders o Depression (2x more apparent in woman than in men)  Feelings of hopelessness, guilt, helplessness  Suicidal thoughts  Loss of interest in everyday activities and pleasures  Usually occurs as episodes that last a few months; some people suffer from chronic depression  Treatment  Temporary loss of gray matter in cortex  Reduced levels of neurotransmitters in certain brain areas  Psychotherapy and/or medication can reverse these changes  Antidepressant medications  SSRI’s  increase activity of serotonin0using neurons in the brainstem and limbic system (Prozac, Zoloft)  SNRI’s  bloke reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine (Cymbalta) o Mania (bipolar disorder – never just manic… depressed and mania)  Racing thoughts, quick pressured speech, insomnia, rapid mood shifts, careless impulsive actions (reeeeally happy)  If depressed, give patient antidepressant medication, and shoots them into a mania if person is bipolar  Cause unknown, but probably involves unstable calcium metabolism at pre-synaptic membranes – possibly due to excessive activity of the enzyme protein-kinase  When depressed person who is bipolar gets medication for depression, must be mood stabilizers; if given antidepressant, it will shoot them into a mania  Anxiety disorders o Apprehensiveness, panic attacks, over activity of sympathetic nervous system: high heart rate, blood pressure, rapid breathing; rush of blood to muscles; excessive sweating o Generalized anxiety  Purest type of anxiety disorder  Constant worrying  Worrying is hard to control/difficult to think of anything else  Treatment of anxiety  Anxiety regulated in the brain by two main neurotransmitters; both inhibit anxiety:  GABA: gamma amino butyric acid  Serotonin  Many drugs mimic GABA: alcohol, valium, Xanax  Highly addictive – not encouraged by medical professionals  Obsessive compulsive disorder o Invasive thoughts: contamination/germs, doubting, exactness/symmetry o Compulsions (actions hard to resist)  Checking, washing, counting, arranging o OCD involves serotonin abnormalities in the basal ganglia and prefrontal areas of brain o Antidepressant meds that boost serotonin (usually SSRI) can control OCD signs and symptoms o Psychotherapy can also help control OCD  Schizophrenia o Od behavior and speech o Social withdrawal o Psychosis (losing touch with reality)  Paranoia (irrational suspiciousness)  Delusions (false beliefs)  Hallucinations (false perceptions); mainly auditory o Schizophrenia and the brain  Neurodevelopmental disorder  May begin in utero with mis-wiring of the brain  Risk factors:  Genetics  Mother’s exposure to viruses  Damage to baby during birth  Having an older father  brains of people with schizophrenia show greater shrinkage than normal  people with schizophrenia show: increased levels of dopamine in basal ganglia  reduced levels of serotonin in frontal areas  treatment involves “antipsychotic” medications that reduce dopamine action and increase serotonin action (abilify)  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) o Boys run around, can’t sit in seat o Girls are calm, but can’t focus  Fidgeting and squirming  Distractibility and forgetfulness  Difficulty focusing  Blurting, butting in, or constantly interrupting others o ADHD and the brain  People with ADHD show 3-5 year delays in the development of certain brain areas (especially prefrontal area) o Treatments  Stimulant medications to boost functioning in the underdeveloped brain areas  Ritalin, Adderall, Dexedrine, etc.  Dopamine and/or norepinephrine neuptake inhibitors, which increase neurotransmitter activity in synapse  Normally addictive, but usually non-addictive for ADHD treatment  Conclusions  Last 20 years have seen great advances in understanding mental disorders  Greatest progress in treating mental disorders has come from psychopharmacology: the use of findings from neurochemistry to devise medications that are effective and safe  Most patients benefit from a combo of medication therapy and psychotherapy Prejudice and Discrimination 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  Stereotypes  Stereotypes in the media o Gender: females (cleaning, cooking, children), males (get drunk and be stupid, provide for family) o Race o Sexual orientation: gay male (very flamboyant) o Age: teenagers (disrespectful and angsty), old people (rude, bitter)  Shared belief or expectation about group o Not necessarily good/bad, true/untrue  Prejudice: negative evaluation of a group (often at individuals) o Can be based on real or imagine characteristics o Ex: John McCain too old  Discrimination: negative act towards person/group because of group membership o Different ways discrimination expressed  often violent acts  How aware are we?  IAT test from Blink  Sometimes we aren’t aware that our brains are stereotyping, unconscious action  Realistic conflict theory: prejudice from intergroup (between) conflicts over:  Resources (concrete  money, oil; abstract  status, fame)  Ex: Robber’s cave experiment o Summer camp with 2 teams of boys, teams competed for prizes/privileges o Superordinate goal: cooperation of both teams  Ex: fix water pipe, push truck up a hill o After superordinate goal, groups become friends again (due to being forced to work together)  How easily do groups form?  Categorization leads to: viewing outgroup members as more similar to one another than ingroup  Ingroup members liked and treated better than outgroup  Why do you think this social tendency developed in humans?  Forms of prejudice  Overt racism: explicit (open) prejudice  Aversive racism: openly support equality, but hidden prejudice and discrimination o Ex: what the IAT claims to detect (crossing street to avoid black man, picking teams for sports)  Everyone aware of and affected by negative stereotypes but, o Low prejudiced motivated to suppress prejudices o High prejudiced NOT motivated to suppress prejudices  Wen conscious control reduced, even unprejudiced slip into automatic prejudice  Example: the shooter study o Shoot white man or shoot black man in split second o More errors with unarmed black men than with unarmed white men  Not one race made more errors; all races  Reducing prejudice/discrimination  Superordinate goals  Education  Interaction  Contact hypothesis – does merely bringing two groups together reduce prejudice? o Research results mixed… sometimes makes things worse o Contact needs following conditions:  Mutual interdependence  Common goal important to both groups  Equal status of all  Informal interpersonal contact  Multiple contacts with several members  Social norms promoting equality Final Review and Information 10/3/2011 9:31:00 AM  Final Information  Monday, Campbell Hall, 12:00 – 3:00  Bring pink ParScore form  Bring pencils  Thinking  Prototype theory of meaning o What category does this item fall under?  answers that question o We have idea of typical category member or prototype o Ex: what’s the prototypical shoe?  Tennis shoe  Spreading activation o Answer question: how are concepts organized in our minds? o Concepts networked and an trigger thinking about related concepts o What first comes to mind when you think of the color red?  Apple, apple pie, apple iPhone  Fire, fire truck, hot, James Franco, etc.  Change blindness o Large changes within visual scene are undetected by viewer o Change has to coincide with some visual disruption o Ex: physics issues in movies (superman’s cape, etc.) that brain doesn’t see, but can see the whole picture anyway  Attentional blink o Momentary lapse in awareness that occurs after a stimulus catches the brain’s attention o Brain can process a stimuli, but most wait a certain amount of time before able to process another stimulus  Algorithms vs. heuristics o Algorithms  Mechanical repetitive problem solving (alphabetizing a list of words) o Heuristics  Simplified problem solving (mental shortcuts; ex: if you’re guessing which child is the oldest, you choose the tallest) o Types of heuristics and limitations  Overconfidence: believe our estimates/decisions/recollections are more accurate than actually are  Confirmation bias: paying more attention to info that confirms our ideas  Ex: believe bad things happen on full moon, so only notice and remember bad incidents on those days  Availability heuristic: whatever information is available is what you base your prediction off of  Representative heuristic: similar to availability heuristic, but base predictions and thoughts based only on a small population on what has happened (g
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