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Introduction 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  Logistics  Professor Victor Rios  Reader is optional, but readings can be found on gauchospace o Available at graffikart ~ $20  Syllabus on Gauchospace/in the reader  Lecture  What is sociology? o scientific study of the web of social interactions that we ambiguously call society o study of human society o sociological approach allows us to go beyond the world of the self-evident, beyond the “world taken for granted” (Alfred Schutz) o as a science  utilizes systematic and empirical methods to capture patterns of human behavior  first rule of sociology: o “Things are not always what they seem” – Peter Berger  agency: the individual; an individual’s ability to place movement in the world  structure: social things that other human beings have built (ex: Capitalist economy, university system)  the sociological imagination o “Neither the life of the individual, nor the history of society, can be understood without understanding both.” – C. Wright Mills o a method by which we study the interaction between individual lives and society (C. Wright Mills) o the ability to connect one’s personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces; using sociological imagination allows us to “make the familiar strange,” or to question habits or customs that seem natural to us o psychology vs. sociology  psychology  individual, how the individual functions due to the brain, etc.  sociology  groups of people, societies, interactions between individuals o the individual always has a certain historical context  education, race, socioeconomic status, religion, etc.  sociology is about o making the familiar strange  ex: Pulp Fiction scene o turning society into a giant petri dish to examine o thinking outside of the box o distinguishing between reality and multiple truths  Peter Burger o Things are not always as they seem Movie 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  consumerism  car, house, clothes o average American house as doubled in square footage since 1970’s  less people living in more square feet  it’s all about “property” because you can show it off; it’s easy to lie about what’s in your bank account  water, coffee, athletic footwear o used to be generic, but now branded  people are willing to pay for status o more with highly educated people, rather than people with little education  advertising and the end of the world  what impact does advertising have on the culture?  All humans are influenced by advertising o How do we become happy?  Consumption of objects o What is society? o What is the future like?  Spin the bottle (men and alcohol)  “a real man can hold his liquor”  it’s something you can brag about  kind of drink matters too o shows manliness  turning down a drink  manhood questioned o aggression, masculine behavior, not backing down  ritualistic (sports, frats, etc.)  crips and bloods: made in America  Kumasi, bird, ron  Because they couldn’t join boy scouts, cub scouts, other organizations, formed own “clubs” o Sense of family, acceptance, had power with numbers  Rivalries with clubs form other neighborhoods  1950-1966 LAPD ran like military o black residents treated as enemies  busting out  strange fruit (Billy Holiday)  music goes along with social movements  lots of lynching: o severing of sex organs of lynch victim o often accused of raping a white woman  wall street  stock exchange has own language o moves very quickly o mistakes cost money  a hard straight (prison to real world adjustments)  Lecture 3 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  Breaching assignment II th  due Tuesday 17  examining norms, conformity, rules, etc.  Extra credit Rios lecture  Wednesday April 18 th @ Corwin Pavilion 4pm  Response details on Gauchospace  turn in to T.A.  Review  The sociological imagination  Making the familiar strange  Using sociology to make deeper sense of social issues o Film on issues of inequality and social problems  Patterns of human behavior  Pre-sociological influences  Plato’s six basic assumptions of society o Man is an organism o Organisms tend toward survival o Man survives in groups o Man is a social animal o Man lives in an ordered society o The order is society is knowable  The sociological imagination  What is sociological imagination? o analyzing the interplay between individuals and the history of society o the skill to connect distant and abstract historical forces to your every day experience  ex: I’m heterosexual, I acknowledge I have that privilege and although I know that gay people live in the world as a people, I don’t go around all day wondering what it’s like to live as a homosexual person.  Sociological imagination allows people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues o Personal trouble  Ex: students having to sit on the floor to crash a class; wait to get into class, wah about it, etc.  Troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of immediate relations with others; they have to do with the self and with those limited areas of social life or which we are directly and personally aware o Public issue  Ex: students having to sit on the floor to crash class; 30 years ago you could get into any UC with a 2.5 and nearly free tuition  Do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of our inner lives; have to do with organization of places where we live, work, and play; issue is a public matter where some cherished value is felt to be threatened  False consciousness  “The sociological imagination enables us to take into account how individuals, in the welter of their daily experience, often become falsely conscious of their social positions.” – C. Wright Mills  false consciousness – the mystification of material and institutional processes that mislead people, often to act against their own interests or to continue to act against the interest of those in the classes below them o ex: politicians  the poor are poor because they’re lazy; let’s not give them welfare because it’ll make them more lazy o ex: working class voters vote for politicians who represent big business o ex: middle class blame poor for personal troubles (kids in school, paying mortgage, and I have to pay for other peoples’ welfare?! I’m voting against it) o ex: society blames outcaste groups for its problems (undocumented immigrants) o ex: when religious beliefs are used to justify hatred  Nacirema  “attitudes about the body” have a pervasive influence on many institutions in Nacirema society  use ritual and ceremony to rid the ugliness and disease of the human body  in reality: American o primping selves, looking in mirrors, working out/bulking up, dieting, etc.  structure and agency (cyclical)  social structures – those establishments created by enduring patterns of collective behavior in society; these structures limit or influence the opportunities that individuals have o ex: labor market, family, school, economic system  agency – the power that individuals have to act and make change in society o ex: female student always wore hoodies/baggie sweats/hair in bun/no make-up, rest of classmates were dressed well/presented themselves well  she purposefully dresses as such because she disagrees with the fact that F are societally pressured to always look nice, whereas M don’t o human action and interaction  analogy o picture of two old people facing each other, two naked guys playing guitar, gold goblet, woman in doorframe Jesus Camp Documentary 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  Missouri, USA  Compares and contrasts America’s youth with the radical children of Islam  Says there’s a new openness to Christianity thanks to President George W. Bush  In order to be saved, radical evangelicals must be “born again” and see the light of Jesus  75% of homeschooled kids in the United States are Evangelical Christians Lecture 5 - Conformity and Obedience, Socialization, Social Institutions, the Social Construction of Reality, and Theory 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  What is false consciousness?  the inability to connect personal troubles with public issues o ex: middle class blaming other people for their issues (mortgage, education, etc.)  AND  The mystification of social issues  Conformity and obedience  Stanley Milgrim o 1960’s  shock experiment o wanted to study obedience of Germans, but ended up not even going to Germany because the study in the U.S. was strong enough/counteracted his theory about Germans, obedience, and the Holocaust o found that Americans were extremely obedient  Readiness to obey authority no matter what outrageous acts are requested  In modern society, obedience is a central mechanism for organizing our social world  Functionalist  we need obedience in order for society to function properly o Ex: stoplight is an order  when the light is red, we as drivers are ordered to stop; without the stop light there would be chaos and danger  Authority: the game of death (from BBC) o torture on French TV o when answered question wrong, got shocked  because in game, even if partner asks you to stop, you’ll continue; 80% of people agreed to shock  based off of Milgrim’s experiment  reasoning = compartmentalized  socialization  socialization teaches us conformity and obedience  process by which we learn norms, ideas, and behaviors that make us feel part of society  socialization is required in order to participate in society  socialization creates society o in other countries, they have preconceived notions of what Americans are  as tourists, people of foreign countries treat us very differently (French hate us, 3 rdworld countries treat us VERY well)  Milgrim believes people have this psychological inability to disengage o Social norms don’t necessarily correlate with what we consider moral thinking and behavior  Ex: homophobic language, sexism in the workplace, war, etc.  Social institution  What is a social institution? o Any institution in society that works to socialize the people within it  “Institutions are the rules of the game in a society, or more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction. They structure our social, political, and economic experience,” (MSJ p. 19).  Social construction  What is social construction? o The collective reality developed by people agreeing to behave in certain ways and follow certain rules  People shape reality through social interaction  The construction of reality changes depending on “the history of society”  Ex: Dr. Rios’ letter of high teaching excellence o Socially constructed as a great professor, therefore:  Students’ expectations of his teaching go ^  He psychologically thinks more highly of himself  “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” (W.I. Thomas)  the social construction of reality  Harold and Kumar scene on the airplane  terrorism  “If things appear to be real, they are real in their consequences.” (Peter Berger)  Theory  What is sociological theory? o Statements about how the world works  Sociologists base theory on empirical studies o Ex: hypercriminalization (labeling people criminals before they do anything wrong  eventually they become criminals because of social construction of reality)  Theory helps us find the right answer to questions, but more importantly, the right actions for social change  We need theory to identify and implement transformation  Marx and conflict theory o Conflict between the classes  Ex: “We are the 99%” o Share of world’s private consumption, 2005  World’s poorest 20% consume 1.5% of wealth  Middle 60% consume 21.9%  Richest 20% consume 76.6%  Who are the bourgeoisie?  Those who own most of society’s wealth and means of production (the 1%)  Crimes of control vs. crimes of resistance o Historical materialism  History is created by economic relations, relations of production  Economic structure of a society (material relations) determines how non-economic structures operate (the superstructure)  Capitalist system  culture and politics can be predicted because they’re products of the economy (according to Marx)  Conflict arises between classes, leading to social transformation (capitalism won’t exist for too long, according to Marx) The Big Three 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  Review  What does breaching teach us about: o Conformity and obedience? o Socialization? o Social institutions? o Social construction of reality?  “If things appear to be real, they are real in their consequences.” – Peter Berger  we all have differing views of situations, and our perception of a situation will determine how we react  situations are often determined by interaction and perception, not by objective facts  even if one’s interpretations of a situation are incorrect, the consequences are just as real as if one had correctly interpreted the situation  ex: the stock market  stock market crashes based on some hypothetical scare/people freak out and take out their investments o Theory?  Today (the big 3)  Conflict (Marx)  Interpretive Sociology (Weber) o Rationalization  Functionalism (Durkheim)  Methods o Qualitative methods  Historical materialism (Marx)  macro  History is created by economic relations, relations of production  Economic structure of a society (material relations) determines how non-economic structures operate (the superstructure) o If you know the economic structure of a society, you can decipher politics, education, etc. o The economy/class struggle is the driving force of society  Conflict arises between classes, leading to social transformation  Conflict o “The history of all… society is the history of class struggles.” o “All our inventions have endowed material forces with intellectual life, and degraded human life into a material force.”  Alienation o Humans are laborers by nature  Who are you laboring for?  Yourself = fully human  Someone else = stripping away your humanity  If you don’t labor, you aren’t human. o Therefore, when humans labor to create value for others, they become disconnected from the core of their humanity o The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas; the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force  How would Marx explain that reality is socially constructed? o Powerful vs. powerless  Powerful people dictate reality in regards to law, power, and money o Hope (conflict)  The working class can revolt and construct a different reality o “Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose by your chains.”  Interpretive sociology (Weber)  micro  Based on the meanings we give to things in our society  Focuses on micro-scale social interaction o Known as “micro-sociology”  Ex: Punished  Examples of interpretive sociology o Social construction of reality  As we interact, we’re creating structures o Seeing patterns within  Gestures  Rituals  Face work  Pretending to be professor Rios  Speech, interaction, knowledge, hand gesticulations, etc.  Symbols  Women selling cars o Gender as a symbol  F used power as F’s to sell the vehicles o Impression management o Roles  F selling a vehicle can’t talk too much like one of the guys  Can pretend she doesn’t know as much as she really does o Conflict between roles o Studying interaction o Typologies  Categories for each type of role  Ex: innocents (face work), ladies, etc.  Max Weber o We act towards ideas, concepts, and symbols based on the meanings we give them o Wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism where he showed how Calvinism helped to influence the expansion of capitalism  Calvinism = branch of Protestantism very strong in early American culture; to show that you’ll be saved/salvation  must acquire resources on earth = symbol of salvation for afterlife  Culture and symbols from early American history pushed people to acquire wealth, resources, and land; despite taking people out of your way in order to be saved o Believed we should examine the meanings we put on things; called “verstehen” o Our actions and interactions are carried out in a system that Max Weber calls “rationalization”  In modern society: affection, emotion, and tradition are replaced by efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control (quality vs. quantity)  Process by which actions and interactions become ruled by efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control  Individuals are socialized to follow efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control o Argue with Marx  Marx = economic system created religion  Weber = interactions, symbols, culture created economic system Incarceration: Safety Orange 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  1970’s New York Governor Rockefeller  life sentence in prison for trafficking of illegal drugs  corporations and home owners got rid of taxes (they were to pay) in support of social programs  leads to state abolishing these social programs  spent money on defense and social security Quiz, Review, and Functionalism 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  Quiz Questions  Rationalization is: o The organization of society based on justifications o The organization of society based on efficiency, control, and predictability o The organization of society based on controlling the poor o The organization of society based on agency and structure  Historical materialism argues that: o Culture and interaction determines social action o The economy determines social action o Culture, interaction, and the economy determine social action o All of the above  Review  Conflict Theory (influenced by Marx) o “The history of all… society is the history of class struggles.” o “All our inventions have endowed material forces with intellectual life, and degraded human life into a material force.” o Historical materialism  History is created by economic relations, relations of production  The economic structure of a society (material relations) determines how non-economic structures operate (the superstructure)  Conflict arises between classes, leading to social transformation  Interpretive Sociology (influenced by Weber) o Focuses on micro-scale social interaction o Known as “micro-sociology” o Examine meaning and purpose that individuals ascribe to their actions o Weber provides key influence to this perspective  Foundations of interpretive sociology = Weber  Not only foundation/didn’t invent it o Rationalization  Affection emotion, and tradition is often replaced by efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control in MODERN SOCIETY  Process by which actions and interactions become ruled by efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control  Individuals are socialized to follow efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control  Examples  Education: wait to go into class, previous class/professor comes out, new professor sets up as students walk in, lecture, starts over (well oiled machine)  Holidays: mother’s day; get her gift, buy her flowers, take her to brunch  Rationalization  social institution (authority)  socialization  obedience  Connecting Weber and Marx o If I study college students:  Marx  economic crisis has determined the ways we live and interact as students (spend money, vote, etc.)  Weber  living in IV creates a certain identity  Greek letters, UCSB sweaters, DP, etc.  Functionalism (Durkheim)  Methods  Qualitative methods  Mass incarceration  Solutions in Punished  Crime as an example  Conflict theory o Crime occurs because of the unequal distribution of resources in our society  i.e. an inner city drug dealer (less monetary and educational opportunities, still needs to make money/support self and family)  Interpretive sociology o perspective of the person committing crime o how the criminal constructs his/her understanding of the act he/she committed, how he/she justified it  Functionalism (Durkheim) o a healthy society needs crime o crime plays the role of building social bonds among non- criminals  ex: 9/11, Columbine, etc. o crime is a direct result of the way in which society is organized o gangs and functionalism  the gang functions to preserve the neighborhood  values, meanings, cultures, etc. of the neighborhood that would ultimately disappear if the neighborhood was collapsing  tell stories, “back in the day”, OG’s tell stories, etc.  jobs decrease, gangs increase  surrogate to provide what is lacking  jobs decrease = money decrease = gangs increase to get resources  the poor function to:  do society’s dirty work  support criminal justice enterprise  make us, middle class, feel accomplished  give us a culture from which to derive pleasure  rap/hip hop music  video games (grand theft auto)  ghetto themed parties o concerned with the organization of individual actions into systems of action o crucial metaphor: society is a living system (biological organism or living system)  poor = liver or kidney, body needs it to survive o emphasis always on stability and order o despite appearances, the social world is organized in a logical, rational way  Punished o Conflict theory  Economy  poverty, criminalization, etc. o Interpretive sociology (mostly)  micro o Functionalism  Need the crimes to bond the police, etc.  From “at risk” to “at promise” (supporting teens to overcome adversity)  The problem: economic waste o we spend more on prisons than we do on public education o $30,000 per year, per inmate o up to $200,000 per year, per juvenile in state facility  national average $88,000 per year  Missouri: $48,545  How do we support and motivate young people who face adversity? o If we look at them differently, they’ll look at themselves differently  The solutions o Invest financially and empathically in the lives of young people placed at risk o Dignity enhancement as crime suppression o Create a continuum of care across institutional settings  Not just one teacher, but all teachers Review, Midterm Info, and Capital 4/3/2012 9:29:00 AM  One main reason for the build up of mass incarcerations was  Response to increase in crime  Functionalism  Conflict  Response to civil “unrest” (1960’s civil rights movement, people in ghettos were rising up for change, citizens and politicians were fearful)  Functionalism  Concerned with the organization of individual actions into systems of action  Crucial metaphor  society is a living system (biological organism)  Emphasis always on stability and order  Despite appearances, the social world is organized in a logical, rational way  Functionalist theory and crime o “But so that the originality of the idealist who dreams of transcending in his era may display itself, that of the criminal, which falls short of the age, must also be possible. One does not go without the other.” – Durkheim o crime creates solidarity among law-abiding citizens o negative response to crime sends a message to everyday citizens (communicative)  Methods o What is method?  From Latin “methodos”: a pursuit, a journey  In sociology, methods are used to find an empirical answer to a pressing social question  Empirical – findings dependent on evidence, derived from a study that is replicable; verifiable by systematic study rather than theory or pure logic  Social scientific method o Observe o Define problem o Review literature o Observe more o Develop a theoretical framework and formulate a hypothesis o Choose the research design o Collect data o Analyze the result o Draw conclusions  Research methods – standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a casual relationship between social elements o Quantitative methods  Seek to obtain information about the social world that is in, or can be converted to, numeric form  Ex: survey o Qualitative methods  Attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form  Ex: Punished  Mass incarceration  The state (1930’s-1970’s = welfare state)  Marginalized classes o Reduced amount of welfare given to poor citizens o In the past, the welfare state provided to its citizens:  Health, education, legitimacy, social welfare o Now, believe in the free market  I
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