1. Western notions of Gender
a. The male and female are seen as complete opposites but also complement each
b. Associate some cultural identities with males and females, such as painting nails,
how they dress, etc…
i. However, we also assume the male and female in its basest form by
d. Challenges of Gender Ideography
1. In the Dominican Republic, there was a village where children
were appearing to change gender at the age of puberty.
a. Turns out the girls were chromosomally normal boys, who
had a deficiency of the enzyme, without which, primary
male sex characteristics do not develop in the womb.
b. These men eventually married, and had children. Yet, they
had a sexual orientation of women. Challenges:
i. Biology dives “appropriate” gender behavior
ii. Gender identity is formed early, and is permanent
iii. Permanence of sexual orientation
ii. Understanding gender in terms of gender criteria-------------------
1. In Paupa New Guinea, maleness and femaleness believed to do
with substances, not physical characteristics.
2. Hua will say that men are the dominant and powerful members
society, but women are seen to possess the “nu” or vital essence.
Men want “nu”.
3. Publicly men will disparage women of “polluting” substances------
4. Secretly, men try to redress the imbalance of “nu”:
a. Young males are made to eat korogo (feminine) foods to
grow and attain maturity
5. Korogo (Feminie)
a. Babies, young girls and boys b. Women, during their reproductive years, or until they have
c. Old men, who have