a. William Cronon
b. “Natural Vs. Created” Landscapes
c. V. Gordon Childe
d. Urban Revolution
2. The correlation between religious power and political power is so unified amongst a
societal hierarchy, in that a political leader is often influenced by, and sometimes elected
from, religious ideologies.
3. It marks the point in human social evolution, where humans did not merely react to
environmental conditions, but instead create our own environment based on our wants
and needs. This “modern” world, in which we create our own destiny and natural
environment, began 9,000 years ago. We started being creators of our own material
a. Today, we barely acknowledge the existence of nature, except in terms of
overcoming hostile environments or natural disasters. This world is entirely
different than the world we lived in during the Holocene Period.
4. William Cronon discussed the development ofAmerican cities, and trace howAmerican
cities developed from the Eastern Continents.
a. Distinguishes two settings:
i. The natural environment
1. City’s roles and purposes/specializations are determined by their
geographical settings and advantages, e.g. for agriculture or for
transport due to many rivers running through it.
ii. The created environment
1. Human institutions can substantially alternate a city’s.
2. Believes the created landscape is more important than the natural
landscape in determining how a social community develops over
5. The natural environment determined the early development of agriculture and sedentism,
but the created environment becomes more profound and predominant, as humans begin
to not only migrate to naturally ideal locations, but create their own ideal locations
6. The Urban Revolution entails a technological revolution in that it develops a new means
of energy and labor extraction from humans. a. If the agricultural revolution exploited the muscle power of animals, the urban
revolution exploited the muscle power of humans.
b. V. Gordon Childe coined the term “Urban Revolution” and “Agriculture
Revolution”; believes in punctuated urban revolution:
i. The Urban Revolution was the originator of our modern civilization, and
defines civilization (meaning URBAN in nature) under 10 distinct traits.A
society does not have to fulfill all of these traits in order to be classified as