# ECON 132 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Horsepower, Watt, Kilogram

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Energy Units: Conversion and Comparison

Prepared by Genevieve Peters UCSD Economics 132

1 of 6

Energy Measurement Units

Force

Pound-force (lbf) Newton (N)

the force required to give a mass of 1 pound

an acceleration of gravity at the surface of

the Earth

the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram

an acceleration of 1 meter per second per

second

Helpful conversions

1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds

1 newton = 0.225 pounds-force

Mechanical Energy

Foot-pound (ft-lb) Joule (J)

mechanical energy required to lift a weight

of 1 pound through a height of 1 foot

the amount of work done when an applied

force of 1 newton moves through a distance

of 1 meter in the direction of the force

Helpful conversions

1 meter = 3.28 feet

1 foot-pound = 1.36 joules

Power

Horsepower (hp) Watt (W)

550 foot-pounds per second 1 joule per second

Helpful conversions

1 Horsepower = 746 Watts

Additional Information

1 kilowatt (kW) = 1000 watts

1 megawatt (MW) = 1000 kilowatts

1 gigawatt (GW) = 1000 megawatts

Energy Units: Conversion and Comparison

Prepared by Genevieve Peters UCSD Economics 132

2 of 6

Energy Measurement Units

Heat Energy

British Thermal Unit (Btu) Kilocalorie (kcal)

the quantity of heat energy needed to raise

the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 F

the quantity of heat energy needed to raise the

temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 C.

Helpful conversions

1 kcal = 4 Btu

1 Btu = 1055 joules

1 kcal = 4220 joules

1F = (1 C x 1.8) + 32

Additional information

1 quadrillion Btu (quad) = 1015 Btu

Electrical Energy

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

the amount of electric energy consumed when an electrical power of 1 kilowatt is maintained for

1 hour.

Helpful conversions

A 100W lightbulb burning for 10 hours uses 1 kWh of electrical energy.

1 kWh = 3412 Btu

Volume

Oil volumes are typically measured in blue barrels (bbl)

1 bbl = 160 liters

1 bbl 42 U.S. gallons

7 bbls = 1 ton

1 US gallon = 3.78 liters

Coal volumes are typically measured in short tons

1 short ton = 2000 pounds

1 metric ton = 2200 pounds = 1000 kilograms

Natural Gas volumes are typically measured in thousands of cubic feet (Mcf)

1 million cubic feet (MMcf) = 1000 Mcf

1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) = 1,000,000 Mcf

1 trillion cubic feet = 1000 Bcf

## Document Summary

Pound-force (lbf) the force required to give a mass of 1 pound an acceleration of gravity at the surface of the earth. Newton (n) the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 meter per second per second. Foot-pound (ft-lb) mechanical energy required to lift a weight of 1 pound through a height of 1 foot. Joule (j) the amount of work done when an applied force of 1 newton moves through a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force. British thermal unit (btu) the quantity of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 f. Kilocalorie (kcal) the quantity of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 c. 1 f = (1 c x 1. 8) + 32. Kilowatt-hour (kwh) the amount of electric energy consumed when an electrical power of 1 kilowatt is maintained for.