Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (490,000)
UCSD (8,000)
MMW (800)
MMW 12 (200)
Lecture 8

MMW 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Patricia Crone, The Roots, Quraysh


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Richard Cohen
Lecture
8

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
Jan$25$Lecture—The$Roots$of$Islam
l Religion%and%The%Secular%Academy%
n Charlemagne%(748-814)% %
u Under%the%reign%of%himCarolingian%Renaissance%
u Seven%liberal%arts—grammar,%rhetoric,%logic,%arithmetic,%geometry,%
astronomy%and%music%
u To%produce%learning%individual%as%experts%and%specialists%
(accurate/precise%methods—value%of%science)%
u The%secular%academy%(non-religious,%worldly)%was%not%opposite%to%
religion%during%that%period,%for%they%were%not%totally%separated%as%
today%
u The%secular%academy%of%today%claims%to%be%objective,%
outsider/sensitive%to%the%insider%perspective.%(There%is%a%strong%
distinction%between%religious%and%science)%
n Science%is%the%religion%of%modern%age%
l Two%Divergent%Ways%of%Considering%The%Meaning%of%“Religion”%
n Religio%(Rome:%religion)—careful%performance%or%observance%of%ritual%
obligation%
n Superstitio%(opposite%to%religion)%
%
Cicero%(classical%Roman%philosopher)%
Thomas%Aquinas%(Medieval%
Christian%theologian)%
ü Religion%is%the%pious%worship%of%
gods%
ü Superstition%is%the%groundless%
fear%of%gods%
ü Martyrdom%is%ridiculous%
ü Similar%perspective%as%Emperor%
Trajan%(of%course%reader)%
ü To%be%Christian%is%to%be%
religious%
ü Superstition%is%a%vice%contrary%
to%religion…because%it%offers%
divine%worship%either%to%whom%
it%ought%not,%or%in%a%manner%it%
ought%not.% %
The%meaning%of%religion%and%superstitious%changed%from%time%to%time.% %
%
%
MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
%
l Two%Divergent%Theses%on%“The%Roots%of%Islam”%
Montgomery%Watt%
Patricia%Crone%
ü Religion%is%an%ultimate%truth%of%
nature%in%the%world%
ü Due%to%the%major%change%of%the%
world%(economically),%the%change%
and%adjustment%of%belief%need%to%
be%made%too%
ü Muhammad%encountered%
economic%change%in%trade%and%
founded%a%new%religion%
ü Religion%is%socially%functional%
and%pragmatic%
ü People%are%seeking%direct%
benefits%from%the%god%
ü People%convert%to%different%
religion%as%they%find%out%one%
god%is%more%powerful%(on%
healing,%feeding…)%than%the%
other% %
ü Islam%as%a%reaction%to%
socioeconomic%change%
ü Increase%of%social%stratification%
ü Transition%to%urbanization%
(economic%dimension)%
ü The%value%of%tribalism%was%
broken%down,%replaced%by%
economic%individualism%
ü Muhammad’s%preaching%was%a%
response%to%the%situation%
ü New%belief%of%Allah—one%god%
emerged%
ü Emphasizing%human’s%need%for%
understanding%their%place%in%
universe%
ü The%decline%of%traditional%value%
ü The%increase%of%spiritual%crisis%
ü Muhammad’s%new%religion%as%a%
restoration%of%tradition%
ü Islam%as%a%reaction%to%political%
change%
ü Anachronism%
ü Islam%was%not%spread%by%trade%
but%by%conquest%instead%
ü As%fights%and%conflicts%between%
tribes%continued,%Muhammad%
strived%for%the%unification%of%
different%tribes%
ü Muhammad%served%as%the%
general%and%conqueror%who%
settled%conflicts%within%Islam%
ü Worship%of%the%only%god%Allah%
ü My%god%is%all%of%yours’%god%
ü Dealing%with%the%problem%of%
the%political%world%
ü Attempts%to%unify%from%family%
to%community—new%era%of%
alliance%and%identiy%
%
n Muhammad%
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version