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Lecture 10

ANFS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Animal Fiber, T-Shirt, Natural Product

Animal and Food Sciences
Course Code
Eric Benson

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Animals in Fiber
Humans generally need some type of clothing
- Our society places great importance on this!
Generally clothing can be made of one of three things
- Plant based materials
- Synthetics
- Animal based materials
Clothing not the only use for fiber
Slaughter versus Non-Slaughter:
- Fiber and skins can either be used as products that require or do not require slaughter
- Fiber: Sustainable and does not require slaughter
- Hides and skins: Not sustainable and requires slaughter
- Down: Not sustainable and may require slaughter?
Alternative Fibers:
Plant Based Fibers
- Plant based fibers are common and have been a mainstay for many societies
- Produced, harvested and used in almost parts of the world
- Labor intensive, which can help industrialization in developing nations
- Today, sustainability makes natural fibers important
- Natural fibers are more CO2 (carbon) neutral than many alternatives - does not
require the burning of fossil fuels
- Processed to create long fibers that can be woven or knit
Cotton is one of the most commonly used fibers:
- Once over crop - plant the whole field and pick it all at the same time
- Breathes
- Hypoallergenic
- Holds moisture
- Fibers break down relatively rapidly
- Prone to shrinkage - sustainable
Impact of Cotton:
Production relatively intensive and has high impact
- High electrical input for processing
Cotton is the world’s thirstiest crop
- 1 T shirt = requires 700 gallons of water (from growing the cotton to production)
- Water rerouted
- Ural Sea dried up
- Pesticides remain

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Industrial uses of hemp fiber is quite common
Requires less resources than cotton
Requires less water
Short or long fiber depending on application
Impacts type of processing
Can be used for stuffing, coarse yarn, or line fiber
Can have rough or fine texture
Need for synthetic products were driven by World War II
- Silk production was largely in areas controlled by Japan
Man made fibers can be based on natural products
- Cellulose based (ex. Rayon)
- Non-cellulose polymers (ex. Nylon, spandex)
Synthetics can have properties not found in any natural product:
- Wicking ability
- Ability to stretch and return to shape
- Breathable fabrics
- Water resistance
- Wear properties
- More resistant to wrinkles
- Made first in the early DuPont Nylon Factory
Animal Based Textiles
- Come in 3 forms
- Fiber
- Skin, hides, fur
- Down
- Includes products that both require and do not require slaughter
Animal Fibers!
- Primitive man sourced their clothes from animals - animal fiber is one of the first reasons
for domestication while keeping the animal alive (no slaughter)
- Sheep traced back to 10,000 BC - the first ones
- Wooly sheep introduced about 4000 BC
- Sheep kept for wool, milk, fleece, and meat
- Herders realized fresh growth had advantages
- Early sheep were hairier rather than wooly
Wool Structure Defined:
- The fine soft curly or wavy hair forming the coat of a sheep, goat, or similar animal,
especially when shorn and prepared for use in making cloth or yarn

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- Fibers have a scaly exterior
- Allows interlocking of fibers to develop felt or yarns
- Approximately 90 percent of the world's sheep produce wool
- Produces between 2 to 30 pounds of wool annually
- Sustainable with a given sheep producing multiple years
- Like in Kenya, sheep gives sustainable way to make money
- Typical life span 7 to 12 years
- Subsist on low quality forage
- Hardy and adapted to a variety of environments
- Typically rated based on the type of sheep:
- Long wool sheep
- Heaviest fleeces
- Coarser
- 41% production
- Medium wood sheep
- Often more for meat than fiber
- Lightest fibers
- Least valuable
- Fine wool sheep
- Greatest value
- Less likely to itch
- 37% world production
- Fibers collected during molting season
- Naturally shed
- 8x warmer
- Typically lighter
- Goats molt during a several week season in the spring
- Lower yield
- Down removed by hand with a comb or by shearing
- Significant suppliers include China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and Iran
Downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit
- Soft, thin fibers
- Warmer and lighter than wool
- Felts easily
- Can be excessively warm
- Molt every 4 months
- Plucking or shearing to remove fur
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