PHIL202 Lecture 1: Ethics/Morality

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PHIL 202 Contemporary Moral Problems
What is Ethics/Morality?
o The study of what is morally right and wrong
o The study of what is good or bad
o What a person or a group should/ought to do
o the study of what actually happened
o what you think is likely to happen
Ethics/Morality
o A atio/deisio/poliy/la a e…
Morally good
Morally bad
Morally neutral
How to Evaluate Arguments?
Logical Thinking
o Logical Thinking: to believe something when you have good reason or evidence
o Cliffod: It is og, alays, eeyhee, ad fo ayoe, to eliee aythig upo
isuffiiet eidee.
Statement/Claims/Sentences/Propositions
o A statement: something that is either true or false
The door is open.
The door is closed.
o What is not a statement?
A command: Open the door.
A uestio: Who’s the oss hee?
Expression of emotion: Thank goodness!
Argument
o Premise(s) -> Inference -> Conclusion
o Premise: the easos i suppot of a aguet’s olusio
o Conclusion: the statement in an argument that is argued for on the basis of the
aguet’s peises
o Inference: the reasoning process expressed by an argument (Hurley); the process of
reasoning from premises to a conclusion (dictionary
o EXAMPLE: No one has the right to kill innocent people, so no one should have the
right to an abortion
o If you believe in the premises, you must believe in the conclusion
Arguments: Deductive or Inductive?
o Deductive Argument
A deductive argument aims to prove that there is a necessary connection
between the premises and the conclusion
In other words, if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true.
Example of a deductive argument:
Premise: Zack is not married.
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