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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 -- Biology and Evolution - Continued.docx

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University of Florida
ANT 2000
Elyse Anderson

Biology and Evolution (Continued)  Beagle Expedition (1831-1836) = Charles Darwin’s journey around the world, mapping areas that had not been mapped before as well as studying the life there; started out in England  Species vary according to the environments they inhabit; some animals have characteristics that would favor survival and others do not; led to theory of natural selection, Origin of Species (1859)  Two problems remained = how does variation arise in the first place? How were variable traits passed on to the next generations?  Traits are passed on through genes, segments of molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid = (1953) James Watson and Francis Crick)  DNA directs protein production  DNA forms into long strands, chromosomes, that are found in the nucleus of cells  Gregor Mendel (1866) = monk and avid farmer, mathematician  Law of segregation = variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations  Law of independent assortment = genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another  Genes come in a variety of forms, which we call alleles  Get a combo of alleles from each of our parents  Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive; dominant form of alleles are more likely to express themselves  To maintain a healthy body, our cells have to divide and produce
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