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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 -- Race & Racism - Continued.docx

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University of Florida
ANT 2000
Elyse Anderson

Race & Racism (Continued)  Carolus Linneaus, Systema Naturae (1735) = divided all humans into subspecies based on geographic location and classified all Europeans as white, Africans as black, American Indians as red, and Asians as yellow (groups = Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus, Europeaeus)  Robert Blumenbach, On the Natural Variety of Mankind (1778) = introduced a hierarchy of racial types still used today; used craniometry; came up with the term Caucasian (Caucasian/white, Mongolian/yellow, Malayan/brown, Ethiopian/black, American/red); he was also against slavery, however, and believed every race was capable of being civilized but had to be taught  Blumenbach’s research, however, was the foundation for scientific racism  Samuel Morton (1799-1851) = professor of anatomy at University of Pennsylvania; claims of racial superiority based upon the measurement of brain capacity through skull size (craniometry); proponent of polygenism, a theory of human origins that claims the human races are of different lineages of species; he was extremely influential and considered one of the leading scientists at the time; huge collection of skulls (still one of the largest even today)  Skull Wars = book about how commonly people would illicitly dig up Native American bodies and sell them to scientists; military specifically after skirmishes with the natives would give the bodies to scientists right afterwards; still a touchy situation even today (lot of anger about it still)  Franz Boas (1858-1942) = “The Father of American Anthropology;” developed the four-field research; argued anthropologists should fight for social causes, including the equality of mankind; incredibly influential on anthropology  Ashley Montagu (1905-1999) = one of Boas’ students; devoted entire career to combating scientific racism; started publishing work in the 1950s arguing against the bounded concept of race (touchy, tough time to argue such a subject); wrote Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race  Biological concept of race = race is defined as a subspecies or a population of a species differing geographically, morphologically, or genetically from other populations of the same species  Three major points = o Definition is arbitrary = no standard set of characteristics; who determines what those characteristics are to
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