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ch 10 and 11.docx

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ANT 3302
Corey Souza

CH. 10+11  Feminist anthropologists focused on male and female personality differences taken from psychoanalytic theories.  Questions about gender identity contributed to understanding in their relation to ethnic and social identity.  Psychoanalytic anthropology- Freud  Linked primitive and civilized processes to male and female childrens development into adulthood.  Civilized mind- differs from primitive in terms of whats conscious and unconscious  Argued that the mind of the civilized western Europeans was like the primitives at one point  Civilized people repressed certain behaviors and ideas over time, still observed in primitive societies.  Totemism  Found among western and non western cultures. John McLennan defines as a region in which primitive people worship plant or animal as a god.  Incest taboo- rule requiring sexual relations to occur outside biological family.  Freud suggests Primal Horde memory that everyone replays during psychological development.  2 Psych developmental processes- Oedipus complex, Electra complex  Freud Model  Women are confined to domestic sphere of nurturing babies and caring for household, because they are seen as naturally inferior  Woman are naturally dependent and passive/masochistic and vein; try to compensate by making themselves beautiful and desirable in other ways.  Margaret Mead- Understanding differences between male and female personalities/ work reveals male and female personalities vary across culture  Book sex and temperament discusses 3 societies in which males and females compare themselves during childhood. • NOT culturally universal for women to be nurturing and males to be aggressive.  Gender personality types: culturally constructed, not biologically determined.  Feminists do not depend on freud’s androcentric and superiority assumptions.  Personality and development is a result of relational experiences developed in infancy which become generalized as one grows up  Mother will become closer to her daughter by pushing her son away  Boy becomes more differentiated from mother than does girl  Boys must identify with a distant father helps develop  Identity- how an individual views themselves in relation to others  Gender identity- how one perceives themselves in relation to being male or female.  Other societies do not agree with conformities  Third gender categories apply to others  Compromise- Remove clause about gender identity; protected from discrimination based on sexuality. Legislative Bargain: Civil rights activists.  Identity politics: allows large change to be enacted by minority groups.  Women bear the brunt in identity movements; perceived as signifying tradition, aren’t allotted benefits of modern society.  Subjectivity: Conscious thoughts/feelings of person; how they identify themselves.  Aperson or subject has multiple identifications of themselves; Focoult: effect of power.  Subjects an entity that can act and be responsible for its actions, oppressed by dominant group  Intrepellation- process where people recognize they belong to a certain identity.  Discourse- System of knowledge: described by Foucault peoples sense of who they are ‘regimes of truth’  Judith Butler- Gender is something that people do.Argues that a subject is created because of certain societal norms of what it means to be a specific gender.  EX: Girls putting on makeup= soc
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