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Chemistry (181)
CHM 2045 (98)
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CHM 2045

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 o A. Two or more elements in whole number ratios • Molecules o A. The repeating groups of atoms in compounds o B. Ionic compounds do not have molecules • Empirical formula o A. Simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound • Molecular Formula o A. Representative of all the elemental atoms in a molecule • Ionic compounds o A. Named after their cation or anion, e.g. Copper (II) ion o B. Monatomic anions = ide, e.g. Hyd2-xide 3- o C. Polyatomic ions = ite or ate, e.g. NO = nitrite and NO = nitrate • Molecular Compounds o A. Two nonmetals o B. Always has covalent bonds • Acids o A. If name ends in ide, it starts with hydro and ends in ic, e.g. Hydrosulfuric acid o B. If an oxyacid, more oxygens = ic and less oxygens = ous • Binary molecular compounds o A. Compounds with only two elements o B. Name begins with element farthest left and down, may get prefix o C. Second element gets the ide o D. Ex: Dinitrogen Tetroxide2 4 O • Physical Reaction o A. Maintains the molecular structure o B. Ex: melting, evaporation, dissolution, rotation of light • Chemical Reaction o A. Molecular structure changes o B. Ex: Combustion, metathesis, redox • Run to completion o A. Moves to the right until the supply of at least one reactant is gone o B. Reactions often don’t do this because they reach equilibrium first • Limiting Reagent o A. Runs out and fucks everybody o B. Ex: alcohol on spring break • Theoretical Yield o A. The amount of product produced when a reaction runs to completion • Actual Yield o A. The actual amount of product collected • Percent Yield o A. Actual/theoretical x 100% = percent • Reaction types o A. Combination: A + B  C o B. Decomposition: C  A + B o C. Single Displacement: A + BC  B + AC o D. Double Displacement/Metathesis: AB + CD  AD + CB • Bonding in solids: Crystalline o A. Sharp melting point o B. Characteristic shape with repeating units o C. Classified  1. Ionic: electrostatic forces, e.g. salts  2. Network covalent: infinite network of covalent crystals, e.g. diamond  3. Metallic: metal atoms bound together by delocalized electrons, e.g. any metal  4. Molecular: individual atoms held by intermolecular bonds, e.g. ice • Bonding in solids: Amorphous o A. No characteristic shape or melting point (has a melting range, not point), e.g. glass • Polymers 
 o A. Can be crystalline or amorphous, e.g. DNA • Valence Electrons o A. Contribute most to an element’s chemical properties o B. Located in the outermost shell of an atom o C. Most of the time (but no always), only electrons from s and p subshells are considered valence • First Quantum Number: Principle Quantum Number, n o A. Designates the shell level o B. The greater the quantum number, the greater the size and energy of the electron orbital o C. For the representative elements, the principal quantum number for electron in the outer most shell is given by the period in the periodic table o D. For the transition elements, the principal quantum number for electron in the outer most shell is given by the period in the periodic table minus one o E. For the lanthanides and actinides elements, the principal quantum number for electron in the outer most shell is given by the period in the periodic table minus two • Second Quantum Number: Azimuthal Quantum Number, l o A. Designates the subshell of a given shell o B. For each new shell, there exists an additional subshell with the Azimuthal quantum number l = n – 1 o C. Ex: n = 1; l = 0 = s subshell; l = 1 = p subshell; d = 2; f = 3 o D. Subshells: s, p, d and f o E. In each subshell there is a 90% chance of finding the electron inside that shape o F
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