ANTH 2301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Turner Syndrome, Glutamic Acid, Genetic Drift

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2/9/2016
Anthropology 2301
B=homozygous + ½ heterozygous
Entrons don’t participate in DNA analysis
THERE IS A TABLE IN TEXT BOOK FOR CODES/SEQUENCES
Mechanisms of evolution
o Mutation
o Gene flow
o Natural selection
o Genetic drift
Mutations rare, usually harmful, they are mistakes
o Point mutation: single base substitution
Example:
GAG = Glutamic Acid = Hb^A
GUG = Valine = Hb^s
o Frameshift additions or deletions
o Sex-linked traits (x)
More common in males
Example:
X^R X^R no disease
X^R X^r - carrier
X^r X^r disease
Other example”
X^R Y no disease
X^r Y disease
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
x^A y male fetus
x^a y female fetus
o aneupody
Turner Syndrome (x)---1X
Kleinfelter syndrome (xxy, xxxy)
Supermales (xyy, xyyyy)
Superfemales (xxx, xxxx)
Gene Flow
o The movement of genes between populations
o Migration A---B
o Hybridization A+B=C
o Exogamy you marry outside of your group
Endogamy can lead to inbreeding which makes harmful genes more likely
to emerge
Nonrandom mating
o Positive assertive mating
o Negative assertive mating
Natural Selection on average certain genotypes have a better chance of surviving and
reproducing than other genotypes
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