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Lecture 11

BIO 152 Lecture 11: Cell Response February, 10th

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University of Kentucky
BIO 152
Seth Jones

Cell Response February, 10 th EPH Receptor A4  Receptor Kinase  Involved in ALS o Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  Scientists at UC, Riverside developed an exogenous agonist of the receptor  Mice with mutated EPHA4 showed increased survival and decreased neuron degeneration when given the drug G – Protein Activation  When no ligand is present, the G protein is inactive  When the ligand binds, the GDP replaced by GTP, which leads to an activated G protein. Part of the G protein is released to bind to another protein  Activated subunit binds to and activated target protein  Example: o Activated adenylyl cyclase converts ATP into the second messenger cAMP, which in turn activates protein kinase A o Activated proteins kinase. A phosphorylates proteins in the heart muscle, causing the heart rate to increase o The G-protein couple receptor activates a G-protein by…?  Replacing GDP for GTP Second Messengers: Signals within the Cell  First messenger changes the shape of the receptor  Part of the protein is released from receptor and connects to enzyme  Enzyme becomes active, produces lots of a second messenger  Second messenger activates other proteins Amplifications of Adrenaline Signal  Each activated receptor activates multiple G proteins which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase enzymes  Each adenylyl cyclase enzyme produces large amounts of the second messenger cAMP, which activates many molecules of protein kinase A  Each protein, kinase A enzyme phosphorylates and activates multiple protein targets Saliva Secretion  The ligand acetylcholine binds to a G-protein coupled receptor  The G-protein is activated and in turn activates phospholipase C  Phospholipase C produces lots of IP3 which goes throughout the cell  IP3 receptors on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum open
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