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Lecture 22

CHEM 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Lithium Hydroxide, Sodium Hydroxide, Ammonia


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 130
Professor
Charles Mc Mory
Lecture
22

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Thursday, March 14, 2019
6.8 Acid- Base Reactions
Acid: proton donor (H+)
Base: proton acceptor
Note onn protons:
A “proton” is a hydrogens cation, H+
In water, proton bond to water to make H3O+
basically, H+(aq) and H3O+ are the same thing. Which one is used depends on balancing
equations
Strong acid: an acid that ionizes completely in water
It is present entirely as ions
From chemical nomenclature (on handout)
Strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HBrO4, HIO4
Week acids: an acid that only partially dissociates in water. It is primarily present as a molecule
and only partly as ions
ex. Acetic acid (C2H4O2)
If an acid is not strong, it is weak
ex. Strong vs weak bases
Strong HCl
Fully dislocates into H+ and Cl-
weak: HF
some dislocation but most of it exists as molecules
in solution
Strong base: a base that completely ionizes in water. It is present entirely as ions
Strong bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Weak base: a base that only partially ionizes
mostly exists as molecule with a little bit of ionization
Ex. Ammonia: NH3 weak base
when you take ammonia and react it with water, you for NH4+ and OH-
NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) —> NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
If a base is not strong, it is weak
CLICKER: Which of the following is a weak acid?
a) HClO4
b) NH3
c) HNO3
d) HF
e) Sr(OH)2
why?—> Looking for acid (proton donor) but not on strong acid list
1
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