LINGUIST 201 Lecture 15: Syntax Morphology Review, Semantics I
University of Massachusetts Amherst
-smallest unit of language that can associated with meaning
-Affixes by means of which one word is formed (derived) from another. The derived word is
often of a different lexical category from the original.
-In English, derivational affixes are prefixes or suffixes
-Express grammatical functions
-In English, inflectional affixes are always suffixes
-Procedure for constructing (generating) all and only the well-formed sentences of a language.
-Furnished by a finite set of rules.
Under generates: A grammar that does not generate all of the grammatical sentences for the
Over generates: A grammar that generates ungrammatical sentences
-meaning of words
-the calculation of the meaning of combinations of meaningful parts
Semantic Relations: does the sentence below tell us anything?
-The stone broke the window.
i. The stone broke
ii. The window broke
-speaker meaning- what a speaker tends to convey
-rules of conversations
-examples: I love watching five hour long movies.
I loooooove watching five hour movies (sarcastic)
-whether a sentence is true or false
-when a sentence implies the truth or falsehood of another
-whether a sentence is ambiguous
Types of Truths
-Truth value depends on the states of affairs in the actual world. -Analytic truth:
-Truth value can be determined without having to refer to the facts of the world.
-Chris is an only child or has siblings. (Analytic truth)
-Chris is an only child or