LINGUIST 201 Lecture 15: Syntax Morphology Review, Semantics I

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University of Massachusetts Amherst

Morpheme: -smallest unit of language that can associated with meaning Derivational Affixes -Affixes by means of which one word is formed (derived) from another. The derived word is often of a different lexical category from the original. -In English, derivational affixes are prefixes or suffixes Inflectional Affixes -Express grammatical functions -In English, inflectional affixes are always suffixes Syntax -Procedure for constructing (generating) all and only the well-formed sentences of a language. -Furnished by a finite set of rules. Under generates: A grammar that does not generate all of the grammatical sentences for the data Over generates: A grammar that generates ungrammatical sentences Semantics: -meaning of words -the calculation of the meaning of combinations of meaningful parts Semantic Relations: does the sentence below tell us anything? -The stone broke the window. i. The stone broke ii. The window broke Pragmatics -speaker meaning- what a speaker tends to convey -rules of conversations -examples: I love watching five hour long movies. I loooooove watching five hour movies (sarcastic) Semantic Knowledge -whether a sentence is true or false -when a sentence implies the truth or falsehood of another -whether a sentence is ambiguous Types of Truths -Synthetic truth: -Truth value depends on the states of affairs in the actual world. -Analytic truth: -Truth value can be determined without having to refer to the facts of the world. Examples: -Chris is an only child or has siblings. (Analytic truth) -Chris is an only child or
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