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Psychology & Brain Sciences

Learning A definition: Any relatively permanent change in behavior produced by experience - can be direct experiences - can be indirect experiences Associative learning: - a process in which you form associations between stimuli and other events - by forming associations, we acquire new information and meaning and we behave differently Classical conditioning – unconditioned reflex 1. dog is hungry 2. dog sees food 3. dog salivates Unconditioned stimulus (US): food  the aspect of the environment that generates a response automatically without learning Unconditioned response (UR): salivating  the response evoked (not learned) by the US Unconditioned: stimulus and response occur naturally, hard wired Stimulus: starts the chain Response: ends the chain Unconditioned reflex: a PRE EXISTING stimulus-response connection Conditioned: connecting something new with the old US-UR relationship Conditioned reflex: a NEW stimulus=response connection we created by associating the bell with salivation Characteristics of the Unconditioned reflex 1. innate and unlearned 2. permanent (usually) 3. all members of the species have it 4. does not vary from individual to individual Characteristics of the Conditioned reflex 1. not present at birth, instead learned 2. impermanent (usually) 3. NOT all members of the species have it 4. Varies from individual to individual Classical Conditioning: 1. An initially neutral stimulus – CS 2. A stimulus that reliably elicits a response – US 3. Contiguity: nearness in time and space of the CS and the US Everyday classical conditioning: 1) survival of a species 2) pets 3) advertising 4) emotions 5) taste aversions Classical conditioning – key components 1) acquisition: training of the conditioned response 2) extinction: the elimination of a conditioned response 3) generalization: the tendency to apply what you have learned to new, similar siutations 4) discrimination: tendency to distinguish between a new situation and the original situation Operant conditioning: - choices made by the learner - deliberate actions, not reflexes - voluntary - goal directed - more complex than salivating to a tone - influenced by consequence *the study of how the consequences of voluntary actions and behavior influence these actions and behavior *behavior operates (has an effect) on the environment 1. behavior varies. It occurs in a random trial and error fashion 2. variation in behavior  pleasurable consequence  more likely to occur in the future 3. variation in behavior  unpleasant conseque
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