Social Psychology, Lecture on April 2nd
Rogers and Prentice-Dunn, 1981
• “Biofeedback” experiment, delivering electric shocks.
• Independent variables,
o Confederate was either White or Black.
o Confederate was either insulting or friendly.
• Dependent variable,
o Strength and duration of shocks.
o Black confederate received less intense shocks when friendly (over-
compensating effect), but more intense shocks when insulting
(provocation provided the “justification” to release racial bias-
Contact hypothesis, direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice
under certain conditions.
• What are the conditions necessary for reducing prejudice by increasing
1. Equal status.
2. Personal, informal contact.
3. Contact with multiple group members to break down stereotypes.
4. Mutual independence.
5. Common goals.
6. Existing norms must favor group equality.
• Requires motivation, effort, awareness.
• Breaks down when tired, stressed, time-pressured.
• Rebound effect.
o Suppressing stereotype can subsequently lead to rebound.
• Prejudiced households prejudice; tolerant ones teach tolerance.
• Including belief that ingroup members are less prejudiced than you are
• Common ingroup identity model.
• Seeing “them” as “us.” o Working together cooperatively (ex. Jigsaw classroom).
• Reframing consequences of inequality as advantage to majority group
rather than disadvantage to minority group.
o Induces guilt for perceiving privilege at other’s expense.
Not just a collection of people,
• Mutual influence.
• Sense of belonging (importance of group).
• Shared goals.
• Members are similar in important ways.
Features of groups,
• Roles: differentiation of functions.
o May be internalized, linked to self-concept.
• Status: hierarchy of importance.
o Linked to individual outcomes; linked to power.
• Norms: rules for behavior.
• Cohesiveness: factors that bind members to the group.
• Allport, 1920.
o Performance enhanced in the presence of others.
• Zajonc’s drive theory of social facilitation.
o Arousal facilitates do