HIST 140 Lecture 2: second half of notes 1:23 hist 140

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University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
HIST 140
Owre Max

A Bi-Polar World: USA vs. USSR We go from calling them “empires” to “superpowers” • United Nations- (US didn’t join League of Nations didn't want to be a part of an international organization), some people said that if there was a stronger League of Nations, WWII wouldn’t have happened, so coming out of WWII they wanted to have a stronger organization. The UN Charter was voted in in October. It is a general assembly of all nations. A nation is a repository of all rights. This is going to provide an opportunity for everybody to be in a democratic assembly of all nations, however there are some breaks to it like the security council, which has 5 permanent members (US, USSR, France, Britain, China), the 5 permanent countries have veto power over, which inherently and immediately cuts the legs off of the UN to be a purely democratic assembly. United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, April-June 1945 Europe: From World War to Cold War Europe was a mess, there were tens of millions of displaced people; destroyed cities and economies; WWII had a very different end than WWI, WWI saw a breakdown of large empires whereas WWII saw an unprecedented amount of ethnic cleansing. Europe, especially Germany and eastern Europe was literally destroyed- whole cities and towns were leveled. Yalta to Potsdam- Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, they met before the war was over at Yalta and decided on “spheres of influence” in Europe. When we finish off Hitler, Eastern Europe will be under the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union, and Western Europe will be under the US and the other Western allies. US wanted open markets and Stalin was against that. Potsdam- Two different people. The Labor party (a socialist party) defeated the Conservative party in elections which made Atley the PM in place of Churchill, FDR died and Truman replaced him. Trying to keep a stable world at Yalta shifted by Potsdam, where Truman had a lot of hostility and paranoia towards Stalin. The Grand Alliance- Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin. Stalin’s fear encirclement and US/allies fear revolution. The balance of power and the United States’ edge Stalin is also afraid because the US is the only country that has the bomb, and they’ve also demonstrated that they would use it (in Japan). Communist heroes/Communist threat The soviets conceded to the West occupying and controlling Japan. In Poland, there were 2 governments- the free government which was in exiled in London, and the communist Loveland government which was supported by Stalin, which was a warning sign of Stalin. Another warning sign was that the Soviets refused to pull out of Iran and Korea Speech in Fb 1946, Stalin speech about capitalist warmongering and Soviet might to defend against it and all enemies. George Kennan was listening and sent a telegram reporting that Stalin said we have to be combative against the US at all times or else we won’t be secure at all. Therefore, we begin to see American policy in W
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