October 7, 2013
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
• In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the UNFCCC, to cooperatively consider
what they could do to limit average global temperature increases, resulting climate
change, and to cope with impacts
• Location: “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
• The U.S. is a member.
• Created in 1997, required 39 developed countries to cut emissions of greenhouse gases
by about 5% below 1990 levels by 2012.
• Activated February 16,2005
• Russia signed in 2004
1. Developing countries would not have to make cuts until a later date.
2. By mid-2004, it had been ratified by more than 120 countries.
3. Currently, 195 countries have deposited instruments of ratifications, accessions,
approvals, or acceptances (NOT THE US—only in the world that didn’t accept)
4. The total of Annex 1 Parties (Developed) emissions is 63.7%.
• U.S. and the Kyoto Protocol
o In 2001, President Bush withdrew the U.S. from the Kyoto Protocol (signed but
not ratified by congress)
o Many believed the Kyoto Protocol is a badly thought-out agreement and:
Will not work
Will cost jobs
Will damage the economy
o Developed countries, developing countries, or both should take responsibility for
reducing greenhouse gases, not just the developed world. (China, India, Brazil,