Motivation, emotion, and sex: motivation, motivation: influences direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior, goals can be anything from being the best at x to simply getting something to eat. So, how do people become motivated: instinct theory, instinct theory. Allostasis = motivation in anticipation of future needs: needs and incentives, drive theory is really all about your needs. But, some goals are a little more motivating : called incentive value, suggests that there is more to motivation than just a push from, incentive theory our basic needs, incentive: environmental factor pulls you to do x. Harry: minimal effort gets c (low expectancy) James: studies hard gets a (high on both: different types of motives, biological motives. Intrinsic: performing an activity because you want to (it"s enjoyable); internal motivation: play high school football because you enjoy it, painting as a hobby.