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Lecture 2

NUTR 120 Lecture 2: Body Basics

3 Pages
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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 120
Professor
Bodo, Mackenzie

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chemistry and physiology
chemistry
study of composition and characteristics of matter
human physiology
study of how human body functions
humans are made up of chemicals, mostly organized into cells
matter is made up of atoms that contain:
-protons: positively charged particles in the nucleus
-electrons: negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus in a “cloud”
ions
electrically charged atom or group of atoms
-form when the atom of group of atoms gains or loses 1 or more electrons
negative charge: gain of an electron
positive charge: loss of an electron
elements
there are over 100 types of atoms, and each is an element
-cannot be separated into simpler substances
-building blocks of matter
there are elements in the body (i.e. hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sulfur,
copper, manganese, selenium, etc)
molecule
matter that forms when 2 or more atoms interact and are held together by a chemical
bond
chemical bond
attraction that holds atoms together to form a molecule
i.e. some atoms form single bonds such a hydrogen (carbon atoms may form single,
double, or triple bonds)
compound
molecule that contains 2 or more different elements
solution
evenly distributed mixture of 2 or more compounds
-the two compounds in a solution are
solvent: the primary component
solute: lesser component that is dissolved into solvent
solubility
how easily a substance dissolves into a liquid
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Description
chemistry and physiology chemistry study of composition and characteristics of matter human physiology study of how human body functions humans are made up of chemicals, mostly organized into cells matter is made up of atoms that contain: - protons: positively charged particles in the nucleus - electrons: negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus in a “cloud” ions electrically charged atom or group of atoms - form when the atom of group of atoms gains or loses 1 or more electrons • negative charge: gain of an electron • positive charge: loss of an electron elements there are over 100 types of atoms, and each is an element - cannot be separated into simpler substances - building blocks of matter there are elements in the body (i.e. hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sulfur, copper, manganese, selenium, etc) molecule matter that forms when 2 or more atoms interact and are held together by a chemical bond chemical bond attraction that holds atoms together to form a molecule i.e. some atoms form single bonds such a hydrogen (carbon atoms may form single, double, or triple bonds) compound molecule that contains 2 or more different elements solution evenly distributed mixture of 2 or more compounds - the two compounds in a solution are • solvent: the primary component • solute: lesser component that is dissolved into solvent solubility how easily a substance dissolves into a liquid acids donate H ions bases accept H ions pH measure of acidity of alkalinity of a solution chemical reactions process that changes atomic arrangement of molecules i.e. a salt forms when an acid reacts with a base (hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide = sodium chloride + water) digestion process by which molecules in food are mechanically and chemically broken down metabolism sum of all chemical reactions occurring in l
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