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Lecture 5

NUTR 244 Lecture 5: 09/08/16 lecture 5 and 6 hunger v. appetite, enzymes/hormones, food and satiety, digestive tract (digestion, absorption, transport, elimination), muscles, digestive disorders

9 Pages
50 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 244
Professor
Susanne Anderson- Riedel
Lecture
5

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09/06/16 and 09/08/16
Chapter 3 The Human Body: we are what we eat
Hunger does not = Appetite
Hunger – physiological sensation, non-specific
Appetite – psychological desire to eat specific foods, cravings, aroused by environmental
cues
Why do we want to eat? Our hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus – triggers feelings of hunger or satiation, nerve cells in stomach and small
intestine
Hormones - chemical messengers, secreted by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions
Fast acting hormones
oPancreatic hormones
oInsulin (decreases blood glucose)
oGlucagon (increases blood glucose)
Stomach hormone
oGhrelin (increases hunger)
Small intestine
oCholecystokinin CCK (decreases hunger)
Slow acting hormones
Fat cells
oLeptin (decreases hunger)
More fat, more leptin
Obese are leptin resistant
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09/06/16 and 09/08/16
Food and Satiety
Proteins, highest satiety value
Fats > carbohydrates
Fiber and water
oDistend stomach
oPromote sense of satiety
Solid foods are more filling than semisolid foods or liquids
Why do we eat?
Social and cultural cues
oSpecial occasions, time of day, emotions, being with others
Sensory data
oSight, smell, taste, texture, sound
Learned factors
oFamily, community, religion, culture, new exposures
3 weeks to learn to like a food
Digestive Tract
Regions of the gastrointestinal tract
oUpper GI
Mouth, esophagus, stomach
oLower GI
Small intestine
Large intestine
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09/06/16 and 09/08/16
o*Support systems
Liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What happens to the food we eat? **
Digestion (4 phases)
oMechanical and chemical break down of food
Absorption (4 types)
oUptake of nutrients through the intestinal wall
Transport
oVia the blood and lymph systems to the organs and cells of the body
Elimination
oExcretion of undigested portions of food and waste products
1) Digestion
Cephalic
oMental preparation for digestion
oHunger + appetite = digestive juices + salivation + GI motion
Oral
oMouth and esophagus
oRole of the mouth
Mechanical – chewing: tongue, teeth
Chemical – saliva: enzymes, lubrication, antibiotic and lysosome action,
bicarbonate; salivary amylase - starch digestion
Gastric
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Description
09/06/16 and 09/08/16 Chapter 3 The Human Body: we are what we eat Hunger does not = Appetite  Hunger – physiological sensation, non-specific  Appetite – psychological desire to eat specific foods, cravings, aroused by environmental cues Why do we want to eat? Our hypothalamus.  Hypothalamus – triggers feelings of hunger or satiation, nerve cells in stomach and small intestine Hormones - chemical messengers, secreted by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions  Fast acting hormones o Pancreatic hormones o Insulin (decreases blood glucose) o Glucagon (increases blood glucose)  Stomach hormone o Ghrelin (increases hunger)  Small intestine o Cholecystokinin CCK (decreases hunger)  Slow acting hormones  Fat cells o Leptin (decreases hunger)  More fat, more leptin  Obese are leptin resistant 09/06/16 and 09/08/16 Food and Satiety  Proteins, highest satiety value  Fats > carbohydrates  Fiber and water o Distend stomach o Promote sense of satiety  Solid foods are more filling than semisolid foods or liquids Why do we eat?  Social and cultural cues o Special occasions, time of day, emotions, being with others  Sensory data o Sight, smell, taste, texture, sound  Learned factors o Family, community, religion, culture, new exposures  3 weeks to learn to like a food Digestive Tract  Regions of the gastrointestinal tract o Upper GI  Mouth, esophagus, stomach o Lower GI  Small intestine  Large intestine 09/06/16 and 09/08/16 o *Support systems  Liver, gallbladder, pancreas What happens to the food we eat? **  Digestion (4 phases) o Mechanical and chemical break down of food  Absorption (4 types) o Uptake of nutrients through the intestinal wall  Transport o Via the blood and lymph systems to the organs and cells of the body  Elimination o Excretion of undigested portions of food and waste products 1) Digestion  Cephalic o Mental preparation for digestion o Hunger + appetite = digestive juices + salivation + GI motion  Oral o Mouth and esophagus o Role of the mouth  Mechanical – chewing: tongue, teeth  Chemical – saliva: enzymes, lubrication, antibiotic and lysosome action, bicarbonate; salivary amylase - starch digestion  Gastric 09/06/16 and 09/08/16 o Role: mix, digest, and store o Mechanical mixing o Gastrin – stimulates the release of gastric juice  Parietal cells – hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor (to absorb B12)  Chief cells – pepsin, gastric lipase o Mechanical + chemical digestion = chyme o Stomach is made of protein, stomach lining has bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid (some water, some drugs, and alcohol absorbed in stomach)  Intestinal o Small: most absorption occurs o *Pancreas: digestive enzymes, hormones (insulin, glucagon), and bicarbonate o *Gallbladder: stores bile, CCK signals the gallbladder to release bile, bile emulsifies the lipids o *Liver: 500 functions… bile synthesis, manages products of digestion (via portal vein), nutrient storage, synthesizes chemicals for metabolism, stores vitamins, manufactures blood proteins (CANNOT LIVE WITHOUT IT) o Large: intestinal bacteria digest any remaining food particles, water and chemicals absorbed into the blood stream ( mostly vitamin K and biotin) Enzymes and hormones  Enzymes o Aid digestion through hydrolysis o Chemical reaction that breaks down substances by addition of water 09/06/16 and 09/08/16 o Are specific to carbohydrate, protein, fat Table 3.1  Hormones o More than 80 for GI function Table 3.2 2) Absorption o Mucosal membrane – lining GI tract, lots of folds o Villi – folds that allow absorption o Enterocytes – absorptive cells in the villi o Capillaries and
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