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Lecture 5

NUTR 244 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Gastric Acid, Portal Vein, Glycemic Index

9 pages48 viewsFall 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 244
Professor
Susanne Anderson- Riedel
Lecture
5

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09/06/16 and 09/08/16
Chapter 3 The Human Body: we are what we eat
Hunger does not = Appetite
Hunger – physiological sensation, non-specific
Appetite – psychological desire to eat specific foods, cravings, aroused by environmental
cues
Why do we want to eat? Our hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus – triggers feelings of hunger or satiation, nerve cells in stomach and small
intestine
Hormones - chemical messengers, secreted by endocrine glands to help regulate body functions
Fast acting hormones
oPancreatic hormones
oInsulin (decreases blood glucose)
oGlucagon (increases blood glucose)
Stomach hormone
oGhrelin (increases hunger)
Small intestine
oCholecystokinin CCK (decreases hunger)
Slow acting hormones
Fat cells
oLeptin (decreases hunger)
More fat, more leptin
Obese are leptin resistant
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09/06/16 and 09/08/16
Food and Satiety
Proteins, highest satiety value
Fats > carbohydrates
Fiber and water
oDistend stomach
oPromote sense of satiety
Solid foods are more filling than semisolid foods or liquids
Why do we eat?
Social and cultural cues
oSpecial occasions, time of day, emotions, being with others
Sensory data
oSight, smell, taste, texture, sound
Learned factors
oFamily, community, religion, culture, new exposures
3 weeks to learn to like a food
Digestive Tract
Regions of the gastrointestinal tract
oUpper GI
Mouth, esophagus, stomach
oLower GI
Small intestine
Large intestine
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o*Support systems
Liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What happens to the food we eat? **
Digestion (4 phases)
oMechanical and chemical break down of food
Absorption (4 types)
oUptake of nutrients through the intestinal wall
Transport
oVia the blood and lymph systems to the organs and cells of the body
Elimination
oExcretion of undigested portions of food and waste products
1) Digestion
Cephalic
oMental preparation for digestion
oHunger + appetite = digestive juices + salivation + GI motion
Oral
oMouth and esophagus
oRole of the mouth
Mechanical – chewing: tongue, teeth
Chemical – saliva: enzymes, lubrication, antibiotic and lysosome action,
bicarbonate; salivary amylase - starch digestion
Gastric
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