CRJ 106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Social Control, Jeremy Bentham, Open Prison

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9 Feb 2017
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Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman)
Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Works/Books
2/1/2017 and 2/6/2017 Lecture (based off Chapter 2): History of Corrections
Themes: Truths that Underlie Correctional Practice
Money and politics
o Strong central themes in correctional history
Evolving sense of compassion and humanity
Social control
o Use of institutions to remove punishments from public view (Foucault, 1979;
Welch, 2004)
Use of labor and technology
Religious influence
Intersection of race, sex/gender, and age
Overcrowding
Early Punishments in Western Countries
Tribal groups
o Wealth and status of the offender were key to the extent of punishment
Could pay to have a proxy stand in for you and take the punishment
(specifically for lashes)
System would avoid shaming the wealthy, but made certain to do it on the
poorer offenders
o Focus on the actor, but not on the behavior
Religious influence over forms of punishment
o Greater influence in ancient societies and primitive social groups (Garland, 1990)
o Prevalent in Catholic European countries
Prior to the 12th Century
o Fines as punishment for injury and acts of violence
Industrial Revolution allowed incarceration because machines were doing everything and
they could afford the loss of workers
The First Jails
First type of correctional facility to develop
Early gaols (jails today)
o English
Castle keeps
Dungeons
o Payment through work
Wealthy citizens could pay for more comfortable accommodations
o Catholic Church
Monasteries
Helped lay foundation for Quakers
For their penitentiaries
Transportation
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