EES 1030 Lecture 10: 10

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Earth & Environmental Sciences
EES 1030
John Adrain

EES: 1030 Metamorphic Rocks st February 21 , 2017 Study Guide Questions 1. What determines what kind of metamorphic rock we will end up with what factors are important? 2. What are our metamorphic agents? Relatedly, what are our different kinds of pressure, and what does confining pressure result from? 3. What are some of the different sources of fluids in metamorphism? 4. What is a protolith, and why does it matter in metamorphic rock formation? 5. We talked about specific physical changes that you might see in rock s due to metamorphism. Know the three different physical changes that we might anticipate, and be able to give examples of rocks where we would see reorientation of crystals as well as rocks where we might see recrystallization of minerals into fewer, larger grains. 6. Be familiar with the different mineral textures, and know how foliation might progress with increasingly high grade metamorphism. 7. What does it mean for a rock to be foliated what will this look like, and what has happened to the mineral grains? 8. How does schistocity differ from a slaty or phyllitic texture? 9. Why do we observe bands of felsic and mafic minerals in gneiss? What does gneiss look like? 10. Whats special about migmatite what has happened to felsic minerals in these rocks? 11. How does marble f orm, and what does it form from? What major changes might we observe in a marble, relative to our protolith? 12. How can we use index minerals to learn about the conditions of metamorphism? 13. With increasing metamorphic grade, how would you expect crystal size a nd foliation to change? 14. Be able to recognize the different descriptions of metamorphic environments, know where you might find them, and know the particular characteristics of the metamorphism that you would observe in each environment. For example, what d oes contact metamorphism result from, and what are its characteristics in terms of pressure and temperature? What about impact metamorphism? 15. What does eclogite form from, and where might we find it forming on the Earths surface? METAMORPHIC ROCKS The rock cycle: these are the paths and processes by which rock types change at the Earths surface and interior. If you take igneous or sedimentary or metamorphic rocks + pressuretemperature = metamorphic rocks! From Greek meta (change) and morph (form) Changes in mineralogy, texture, and often chemical composition of a solid rock occur because minerals and rocks experience conditions unlike those they formed under. What we get is dependent on : 1.) The parent rock, or __________________________ (igneous? Sedimentary? Metamorphic? Rock type?) 2.) The degree of metamorphism (the time over which a rock is being metamorphosed) 3.) And the specific ratios of heatpressurefluids (our metamorphic ____________________________ ) that the rock is exposed tofor example, really hot but low pressure? cooler, but higher pressure? , etc. The metamorphic agents and their ratios vary greatly by environment (so metamorphic rocks, like many rocks and minerals, tell us about where they came fromthey are also environmental fingerprints!). Agents of metamorphism 1
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