SOC 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Scientific Method

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6 Feb 2017
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1/30/17
Development of the Study of Society
Study is only about 200 years old
Industrial revolution and French revolution were some of the things that act as catalyst
for sociology
Auguest Cumte (1798-1857): French scholar and credited as the father of sociology
o Known for the law of 3 stages (or phases):
1.) the theological stage: based on non-empirical ideas
Things that cannot be observed, verified, or proven
o Ex. Spirit beings and the supernatural
Cumte believed that kinships and family ties were important
Attachment to small groups (church group, community groups,
etc.) and religion
Gave sense of belonging
Reason for following: possible reward like going to heaven, want
to conform to keep being part of the family and to not harm it
2.) the metaphysical stage: cause and effect of abstract forces (nature)
Rejects appeal to supernatural
Things just occur naturally
Rely on philosophers
Shift of family and kinships to state (government or governing
power, military, and law)
Reason for following: avoid formal punishments (like prisons), to
follow the law, to follow rules
o Both theological and metaphysical stages have people who want to follow the
rules, but for different reasons
3.) positivistic stage: observation and scientific method
Base society on empirical evidences that can be proven,
demonstrate, and verified
Can rely on scientists
Reject things that did not pass the scientific method and empirical
evidences
Mutual dependence on each other, coordination by the state, and
general spirit that ties us together
o Ex. Using money to buy Starbucks instead of exchanging
them with a service (oordiatio y the state) ad do’t
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