ANT 304 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, James Ussher, Puebloan Peoples

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8 Feb 2017
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08-31-16 ANT 304
1. Creation of the Earth
a. James Ussher (Archbishop)- world was created in 4004 BC, created by the story of
the Bible
b. 1859: Charles Darwin with evolution and natural selection
c. Spaniards and Native Americans: where do the other societies fit in to the Bible
stoy of ho the old as eated? Ho did they get to the e old the?
2. Anthropologist- studied strange and exotic societies reported by missionaries and explorers
a. 1870s British anthropologist Edward Tyler- attempted to organize humanity with 3
stages of achievement
i. savagery- hunters and gatherers
ii. barbarism- cultivation, domestication, less nomadic
iii. civilization- culturally advanced
1. his own Victorian society was the pinnacle of this category and that
this was what all societies aimed to become
iv. savagery aais: otiuous it did’t deelop i oe plae ad
spread to another, rather it sprouted about in different places independently
(parallel growth)
1. very few human experiences are unique, parallel development is
always occurring
b. cultural anthropologists- study contemporary people, who they can go talk to
c. physical anthropologists- study physical human body
d. archaeologists- study the past, material remains, study human society (not the
objects, which are just a tool to study the past)
i. Adolf Bandelier- visited Pueblo Indian groups
1. Worked backwards, from the known to the unknown, present to past
2. Remains the significant principal for archaeological research today
ii. Frank Hamilton Cushing- spent 5.5 years living with the Zuni (Pueblo society)
3. Human prehistory begins with the very first stones & bones found (artifacts) and leads up to
the present
4. Anthropological archaeology goals:
a. Cultural history
b. Reconstruction of ancient lifestyles
c. Why and how human culture changed
5. 1950s: archaeologists got tired of just making an inventory of artifacts so they began to
believe that advancements in society occurred due to ecological and environmental factors
a. Willie (Peru)- introduced settlement pattern archaeology
6. 96s: ahaeologies felt that they ee’t gettig eough ifoatio
a. description explanation
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