BIO 330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cell Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Chromosome

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10 Jul 2016
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Lecture One - Introduction to Animal Virology
What is a virus:
An encapsulated piece of generic information (RNA or DNA)
oContained within a capsid (protein coat)
oThe genome of the virus must be contained in the capsid, other viral genetic material
outside of the capsid is not the genome of that virus
othe capsid prevents viral genome degradation by DNAses or RNAses
protection for the genome
Also provides "anti-receptors" that recognize and dock with receptors on host
cells
oMinimal viruses have a nucleocapsid (capsid containing the nucleocapsid acid) and
nothing else
Ie; Polio
Basic Viral Components:
Nucleocapsid Acid (RNA or DNA)
Capsid
Envelope (optional, not present in all viruses)
oa lipid bilayer, membrane on the outside of the rigid capsid
oRabbis, HIV and Influenza viruses all have envelopes
oEnvelopes provide protection, another layer/barrier to protect the nucleocapsid acid
oThe membrane of the envelope generally comes from the last host the virus replicated
in
oIf the virus has an envelope the anti-receptor will be on the outer leaflet of the
envelope membrane
oIf a virus has an envelope then the envelope must be present for the virus to be
active/infectious
Must have all necessary components to be a Virion (infectious virus)
Viral Properties:
1. Small
capable of passing through a chamber land filter that would filter out bacteria and other
unicellular organisms. - Filterable viruses
Smallest viruses are 20nm but can be as large as 500nm making them the size of an average
bacteria (mega and mimi viridae)
2. Obligatory Intracellular Parasites
"Simple" organization
oOnly a Nucleic Acid, Protein coat and possibly an envelope
oNo organelles
How do viruses differ from other Obligate Intracellular Parasites?
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