Class Notes (836,414)
United States (324,504)
History (301)
HIS 315K (112)
Lecture

UnitTwo-Part1.docx

12 Pages
71 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS 315K
Professor
Kathleen Barr
Semester
Spring

Description
Unit Two The Road to Revolution (2/13/13) French and Indian War (Seven Year’s War) 1754-1763  Started when the British crossed the Allegheny Mountains into Ohio River valley  George Washington started the war when he built Fort Necessity  Ended with Treaty of Paris (1763) o Britain took all of France’s possessions east of Mississippi River (except New Orleans)  It was also a war in Britain’s colonies around the world th  Great Britain in the 19 century is the empire in which the sun never sets Effects of French and Indian War  Heightened a sense of identity among colonists in America o Separate entity  as a cohesive unit o Zinn talks about a movement toward colonial unity  French and Indian War heightened that sense  Strengthened colonists’ pride in being members of the British empire  colonists thought they were/wanted to be loyal citizens; but wanted their grievances to be heard  Defeat of the Catholic French seemed to be a triumph of liberty over tyranny o Pesky Catholics were defeated; protestant liberty was the winner o Colonists continue to be suspicious of Catholicism  1960 first catholic president Problems Associated with Empire  How to defend?  How to govern?  Who should pay? George Grenville  Advocated three things o Keeping a large army in the colonies to defend the frontier  To make it safe for colonists from Indians and for also Indians  To offset demobilization o Enforcing acts of trade  Preventing smuggling  Gave them access to more goods they had not had access to in previous years  Writs of assistance  Allowed officers to enter any place and to seek evidence of illegal trade  Colonists believed it infringed upon their privacy and constitutional rights (later in the Bill of Rights)  Wanted to bringing customs officers permanently to the colony to enforce these acts of trade  Growing conflict between customs officials and colonists who were trying to get on with their economic live o Raising taxes by taxing new sources of revenue  Ended policy of “salutary neglect” Legislation  Proclamation of 1763 o Set the colonial limit of settlement at the crest of the Appalachian Mountains o Purpose  Prevent further Indians wars (to prevent conflict between colonists and Indians)  But Britain only told the colonists to move, not the Indians  Generate orderly settlement  Harder to get tax revenue from people if you don’t know where they are  Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act) o Levied new duties on imports of foreign textiles (coffee, wine, and sugar) o Part of purpose was to prevent smuggling and raise revenue Marks the first time Parliament adopted duties designed strictly to raise revenue and not just regulate trade  Quartering Act (1765) o Provided quarters and provisions for troops at colonial expense o If barracks were unavailable soldiers were held at inns and bale houses  Failing sufficient rooms there, houses and barns (any available building belonging to private citizens) would be put to use o At colonists expense (rooms, services, uniforms) o So important that it was put in the bill of rights o Red coats coming into their homes and towns causing trouble  Stamp Act (1765) o Documents, playing cards, dice, publications, newspapers (frequently used goods) all had to be stamped  Almost every one was literate in the colonies o Adding more onto things that were necessary and important o Revolution gets off the ground with the middle/upper class  Partly in response to Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress (1765)  Met in New York  Nine colonies represented o southern colonies didn’t support revolution in the same awy that the northern people did  so loyalist sentiment was strongest in the south because they wanted the British markets for their crops/slaves o Not in attendance  New Hampshire (later approved proceedings)  North Carolina  Georgia  Virginia o Formulated a Declaration of Rights and Grievances Declaration of Rights and Grievances  Affirmed loyalty to the king and Parliament but denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies o Englishmen in the colonies were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen in Britain (virtual representation) – the people in England claimed  so we should be allowed to tax you  Englishmen could not be taxed but by consent, either by themselves or their representatives in Parliament  America was not represented in Parliament and therefore could not be taxed except by colonial legislatures  CRY OF NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Nonimportation Movement  Artisans and merchants in the colonies began a nonimportation movement (boycott) o Had a direct impact on British merchants who urged Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act  Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act o Declared Parliament’s authority “in all cases whatsoever” Charles Townshend- Chief Minister  Passed Townshend Duty Act (1767) o Imposed a duty on glass, lead, paper, and tea imported into the colonies  Affects virtually everybody in the colonies in a particular way  Tea- everyone drank it because they did not have clean water  If you wanted to drink water you had to boil it  Tea was shipped in glass, lead, and paper o Provided for establishment of a board of customs officials to headquartered in Boston  Wanted to crack down on smuggling  A lot of those that are stirring up the colonists about Revolution are in Boston  Another act suspended the assembly of New York o New York was the colony that was the most reluctant to provide quarters for troops o Royal officials were trying to take away ? Colonial Response  Sam Adams began agitating Against legislation through Sons of Liberty o A collection of loosely organized protest groups originally formed to put pressure on Parliament to repeal Stamp Act Nonimportation  Women began making “homespun” o Because a moral virtue o an indication of revolutionary activity among colonial women o Finished linen/cotton cloth was boycotted  cotton imported into England, then in England they spun it and turned it into finished cloth o If you were wearing this homespun cloth you knew they were taking part in this boycott movement-protopatrioic Lord Frederick North – Chief Minister  Partial repeal of Townshend Act  Ended boycott but resentment remained  March 1770, contentious relationship resulted in Boston Massacre o No one knows who fired the first shot but the colonists said the British did Paul Revere’s Engraving of Boston Massacre (1770)  Savage, brutal killing of innocent people  Redcoats are opening fire – like an execution  Colonists don’t seem to have any guns, unarmed o Running away Boston Tea Party  In 1773, Parliament passed Tea Act o An attempt to bail out East India Co.  Lowered duties on tea  Tea would be cheaper o Colonists opposed to any tax to which they had no consented  Colonists dumped 342 cases overboard Coercive (Intolerable) Acts  Boston Port Bill o Closed the port of Boston until damages were paid  Massachusetts Government Act o Gave powers of appointment to royal governor o Took
More Less

Related notes for HIS 315K

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit