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HIS 315K (112)


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HIS 315K
Kathleen Barr

Unit Two The Road to Revolution (2/13/13) French and Indian War (Seven Year’s War) 1754-1763  Started when the British crossed the Allegheny Mountains into Ohio River valley  George Washington started the war when he built Fort Necessity  Ended with Treaty of Paris (1763) o Britain took all of France’s possessions east of Mississippi River (except New Orleans)  It was also a war in Britain’s colonies around the world th  Great Britain in the 19 century is the empire in which the sun never sets Effects of French and Indian War  Heightened a sense of identity among colonists in America o Separate entity  as a cohesive unit o Zinn talks about a movement toward colonial unity  French and Indian War heightened that sense  Strengthened colonists’ pride in being members of the British empire  colonists thought they were/wanted to be loyal citizens; but wanted their grievances to be heard  Defeat of the Catholic French seemed to be a triumph of liberty over tyranny o Pesky Catholics were defeated; protestant liberty was the winner o Colonists continue to be suspicious of Catholicism  1960 first catholic president Problems Associated with Empire  How to defend?  How to govern?  Who should pay? George Grenville  Advocated three things o Keeping a large army in the colonies to defend the frontier  To make it safe for colonists from Indians and for also Indians  To offset demobilization o Enforcing acts of trade  Preventing smuggling  Gave them access to more goods they had not had access to in previous years  Writs of assistance  Allowed officers to enter any place and to seek evidence of illegal trade  Colonists believed it infringed upon their privacy and constitutional rights (later in the Bill of Rights)  Wanted to bringing customs officers permanently to the colony to enforce these acts of trade  Growing conflict between customs officials and colonists who were trying to get on with their economic live o Raising taxes by taxing new sources of revenue  Ended policy of “salutary neglect” Legislation  Proclamation of 1763 o Set the colonial limit of settlement at the crest of the Appalachian Mountains o Purpose  Prevent further Indians wars (to prevent conflict between colonists and Indians)  But Britain only told the colonists to move, not the Indians  Generate orderly settlement  Harder to get tax revenue from people if you don’t know where they are  Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act) o Levied new duties on imports of foreign textiles (coffee, wine, and sugar) o Part of purpose was to prevent smuggling and raise revenue Marks the first time Parliament adopted duties designed strictly to raise revenue and not just regulate trade  Quartering Act (1765) o Provided quarters and provisions for troops at colonial expense o If barracks were unavailable soldiers were held at inns and bale houses  Failing sufficient rooms there, houses and barns (any available building belonging to private citizens) would be put to use o At colonists expense (rooms, services, uniforms) o So important that it was put in the bill of rights o Red coats coming into their homes and towns causing trouble  Stamp Act (1765) o Documents, playing cards, dice, publications, newspapers (frequently used goods) all had to be stamped  Almost every one was literate in the colonies o Adding more onto things that were necessary and important o Revolution gets off the ground with the middle/upper class  Partly in response to Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress (1765)  Met in New York  Nine colonies represented o southern colonies didn’t support revolution in the same awy that the northern people did  so loyalist sentiment was strongest in the south because they wanted the British markets for their crops/slaves o Not in attendance  New Hampshire (later approved proceedings)  North Carolina  Georgia  Virginia o Formulated a Declaration of Rights and Grievances Declaration of Rights and Grievances  Affirmed loyalty to the king and Parliament but denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies o Englishmen in the colonies were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen in Britain (virtual representation) – the people in England claimed  so we should be allowed to tax you  Englishmen could not be taxed but by consent, either by themselves or their representatives in Parliament  America was not represented in Parliament and therefore could not be taxed except by colonial legislatures  CRY OF NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Nonimportation Movement  Artisans and merchants in the colonies began a nonimportation movement (boycott) o Had a direct impact on British merchants who urged Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act  Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act o Declared Parliament’s authority “in all cases whatsoever” Charles Townshend- Chief Minister  Passed Townshend Duty Act (1767) o Imposed a duty on glass, lead, paper, and tea imported into the colonies  Affects virtually everybody in the colonies in a particular way  Tea- everyone drank it because they did not have clean water  If you wanted to drink water you had to boil it  Tea was shipped in glass, lead, and paper o Provided for establishment of a board of customs officials to headquartered in Boston  Wanted to crack down on smuggling  A lot of those that are stirring up the colonists about Revolution are in Boston  Another act suspended the assembly of New York o New York was the colony that was the most reluctant to provide quarters for troops o Royal officials were trying to take away ? Colonial Response  Sam Adams began agitating Against legislation through Sons of Liberty o A collection of loosely organized protest groups originally formed to put pressure on Parliament to repeal Stamp Act Nonimportation  Women began making “homespun” o Because a moral virtue o an indication of revolutionary activity among colonial women o Finished linen/cotton cloth was boycotted  cotton imported into England, then in England they spun it and turned it into finished cloth o If you were wearing this homespun cloth you knew they were taking part in this boycott movement-protopatrioic Lord Frederick North – Chief Minister  Partial repeal of Townshend Act  Ended boycott but resentment remained  March 1770, contentious relationship resulted in Boston Massacre o No one knows who fired the first shot but the colonists said the British did Paul Revere’s Engraving of Boston Massacre (1770)  Savage, brutal killing of innocent people  Redcoats are opening fire – like an execution  Colonists don’t seem to have any guns, unarmed o Running away Boston Tea Party  In 1773, Parliament passed Tea Act o An attempt to bail out East India Co.  Lowered duties on tea  Tea would be cheaper o Colonists opposed to any tax to which they had no consented  Colonists dumped 342 cases overboard Coercive (Intolerable) Acts  Boston Port Bill o Closed the port of Boston until damages were paid  Massachusetts Government Act o Gave powers of appointment to royal governor o Took
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