IRG 320F Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Democratic Peace Theory, Marshall Plan, Atlantic Charter

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IRG 320 Mar 1st
Is Democracy Exportable?
Making Democracy
oCreating unity
Protect minority groups
Inclusion, separation, and exclusion
Ex: Hutu and Tutsi violence in Africa
Reassure elites
Respect property rights and other individual rights
This is the risk of quick elections, especially by foreign actors
(outside interference) causing problems
Political and economic elites (Russia)
Military elites (Egypt) (Barany)
US democracy promotion
Emancipation in the US
Landed elites in Philippines
Caudillos in the Dominican Republic
Smith talks about US history with confederacy, and integrating the two
nations as one. Needed to end slavery, and provide suffrage for all free
men at the time. 14th Amendment establishes rights for men’s, and
southern states need to abolish slavery and free slaves before the join
the union
However, social structures aren’t changed, only political ones. Take 100
years before true equality. Struggle still exists, and the socioeconomic
order isn’t fixed (ex: former slaves not getting land after freed)
US annexes Cuba from Spain, as well as Guam, Puerto Rico, and
Philippians. Attempt to work to create some political system there, US
claims they’ll civilize it, introduce parties, elections, better govt. structure
with local elections. Voting structure required taxes to be able to vote,
land elite really got the power, controlled the state, and ensured the
elites remained in power. 1946, independent, but 70’s, democracy breaks
down. Dictatorship emerges
1911, Dom. Republic president killed, replacement couldn’t rule, US
encourages arch bishop to run, he can’t, resigns, congress elects a
general for one term. But he extends power, turns office into expression
of strength, civil war breaks out, elections demanded then held, US backs
winner, but US influence inflames national outcry on winner, 1960 US
takes over. Instill a military government, fixes judiciary, national guard,
land surveys, ownership titles, modernize farming and roads, as well as
ports, but never dismantles the Caudillos elites in the D.R. Fight for
control over the country, struggle to establish democracy in the country
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oPreconditions that cannot be changed
Strength of civil society (Berman)
Culture of tolerance and equality (Fish)
Communal Elites (Slater/Chirot)
Ethnic divisions (Chirot)
Nationalism (Slater/Fish)
Religion (Slater)
oPreconditions that can be changed
Strong political institutions (Berman)
Property rights, individual freedom
Ethnic diversity appeased (Chirot)
Institutions that include elites (Chirot)
Women’s rights (Fish)
Diversity of democratic promotion (Fish)
oWilson, April 2nd, 1917
Everyone should have the right choose their way of life and obedience,
no matter what size the nation is
oAffirmation of democracy
Atlantic Charter, 1941
Marshall Plan, 1947
Organization of American States, 1948
Alliance for Progress, 1961
oPresident Carter
Sentiment on human rights
oDemocracy promotion
President Bush endorses it in his speeches as well
oWhy invest in democratization?
Less likely to go to war with other democracy, also will be
friendlier to the US
Human rights
oFukuyama and McFaul
Reasons for democratization
US interests
US values
Challenges to democratization can be overcome
Recognize sequencing
oPeople need to want it to flourish within their nation
oDemocratic peace theory
Audience costs (Fearon, Tomz)
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Tomz: Voters don’t punish reluctance/likelihood to go to war, but
punish empty threats
Compliance (Dia)
Promoting trade: property rights and individualism (McDonald)
Satisfy the interest of consumers via free trade
Also leads to peace, because we’re not going to war with a key
trade partner or supplier of materials/goods
Transition to democracy?
oMansfield and Snyder
Problem: democratic transition
Demands for participation but
oWeak rule of law
oState officials are corrupt
oElections are rigged
oMilitias overturn elections
Challenges in transition
oNationalism, ethnic division
oEstablished democracies may be more peaceful, but
building ones aren’t
oQuiz 4
Fukuyama and McFaul (2013)
Mansfield and Snyder (2013)
Moser (2009)
deMesquite and Downs (2005)
Weyland (2013)
Bellin (2012)
Duefler (2013)
Mueller (2013)
Kaldor (2007)
Fearon and Laitin (2003)
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