IRG 320F Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Democratic Consolidation, Social Capital, Emerging Markets

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IRG 320 Feb 18:
Structural Preconditions
Where are we today?
oNumber of global democracies isn’t increasing, prolonged halt since 2006
o1974-2014: 29% of all democracies broke down
oEmerging market countries: 12 out of 27 have worse freedom scores in 2014
than 2005
oDeepening of authoritarianism
oRetreat of Western Democracy
oDemocratic consolidation: you need to make democracy that only game in town,
need to constrain the actors that will prevent the deepening of democracy
When this doesn’t occur, we have “hybrid regimes”, civil liberties aren’t
increasing
Ex: Russia’s political elites bought former Soviet factories being sold to
the free market to prevent the further spread of democracy out of fear of
losing their favorable status within the government, or China’s control
over the internet. Furthermore, U.S. congressional deadlock that leads to
shutdowns, or debates that slow down the process, reluctance of the
President abroad may signal a retreat of Western Democracy
What affects the emergence of democracy?
oEconomic well-being
oEconomic crisis
oCivil societies
Focus on the greater good
oForeign intervention
oDiffusion
Snowball effect, one democracy will influence its neighbors
oHistory w/ democracy
oEducation
oStatus of Women in society (religion)
Equality, healthcare access
oEthnic division
1. Civil Society (Berman)
oOpen, voluntary, self-generating
oPartially self-supporting
oAutonomous from the state
oBound by a set of shared rules
Civil Society and Democracy
oParticipation in groups increases social capital
oSocial capital makes democracy work better
Berman
oStrong civil society promoted authoritarianism
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