April 2 : Midterm two in class.
No office hours for this week on Wednesday and Thursday, instead on
Friday from 123pm
Black Ink = PowerPoint lecture
Blue Ink = class lecture on that particular slide or topic that was not on the slide.
Red Ink = Examples related to that particular topic
Green Ink = Definitions and important terms
Specific kind of learning not cognitive learning that you use for school (memorizing stuff). This learning is
about what you learn from your experiences in the world, habits etc.
Learning: A relatively long lasting change in thought or behavior produced by the environmental events
Relatively Long Last: Means something that stays with you for long time.
1. Refers to actual changes in the person
Learning controlled by what happens in the environment
EX: Group of monkeys were exposed to snake none of them were scared of snakes, but then a monkey
who was afraid of snakes was added to the cage, and seeing his fear of snakes, the other monkeys also
started fearing snakes, this is called learning, because you’re learning from your environment. 2. Performance: new behaviors produced by these changes
Performance: how we change based on the learning. Learning is what happens in the brain.
Two types of Conditioning
Conditioning: you learn something on a condition that happens in the environment
1. Classical Conditioning: Learning new connections between stimuli
Learning about connection in the world. About how things go together in the world
EX: Little kid are told to stop playing outside because its thundering, they would say mommy its not raining.
But slowly they learn that thunder signals for rain. So they react to it. So its kind of like its imprinted in their
brain that Thunder ▯ Rain. Thunder ▯ Rain. Thunder ▯ Rain
2. Operant Conditioning: Learning new connections between acts and their consequences.
How acts and behaviors have consequences.
EX: Teaching dogs how to sit. So your technique is that dog gets a biscuit if he sits. But the dog doesn’t
know what sit means. So they keep jumping to get the biscuit and when they give up and sit you give the
biscuit. So they start jumping again, but give up and the whole process repeats. So they learn that if the
person says sit, it means you will get a biscuit. So they do that in hope of biscuit. So they realize that the
consequence of sitting is getting a biscuit.
Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
Its about relationship among stimuli in the world
EX: Lightning means a thunder
EX: Bell ring in classroom so it means class over
These are well learned classical conditioning example
EX: You eat at certain restaurant everyday at certain time, but today you’re not that hungry but when you
walk past it you get hungry because you’re body thinks that, that restaurant means food. So you response
to it by just seeing the place. Operant Conditioning
Learning to associate a response with a consequence
Learning to make a response. Rewarded for your behavior. It’s the best way to condition someone.
EX: When you’re studying and you put gummy bears half way to the page. So your goal is that every time
you read till the gummy bear you get to eat it. That way it keeps you motivated to read.
Assumes that basic laws of learning exist
1. Complex learning involves combinations of these simple laws
2. Allows for study of animals and simple situations.
This conditioning approach to learning created assumptions that aren’t universally correct.
It works well with certain aspects, and not all the originally thought.
Classical Conditioning: The processes involved when an organism learns to associate two events.
First discovered by Ivan Pavlov in studying salivation of dogs
Pavlov: Not a psychologist but was a Russian Physiologist. He was studying his dogs drooling. He studies
what everyone saw. He bought dog to lab and the dog would sit in the lab till food was there. The dog would
start salivating every time he saw food. Later, as days went by the dog would start salivating when he
opened the can of food, and then the dog started salivating when he would open the drawer where the food
was kept. He notices that the dog started salivating earlier and earlier. Before Conditioning
Food is presented to dog (unconditioned stimulus, US)
The Dog salivates to food (unconditioned response, UR)
A tone is sounded (Neutral Stimulus)
Dog does not salivate (No response)
Pavlov hypothesized that reason dogs salivate earlier were because of these cues, like knowing that the
can has food, or knowing the drawer has can etc.
He presented the dog food by using a tuning fork and rink it and the gave food to the dog. So when the dog
heard the tone, it would start salivating. He asked that dog salivate to tone, food, timing each followed one
after another but would it only salivate if there was food?
The tone is sounded
Food is presented
Dog salivates to food
(Experimental Trials: Tone, food, salivation)
Experimental Trial is also referred to as Learning Trial.
After Conditioning: After many trials, the tone and the food becomes associated and the dog will
salivate to the tone alone
Tone is presented (Conditioned Stimulus, CS)
Dog Salivate (Conditioned response, CR)
Even when there’s no food presented the dog will salivate alone to the tone. The Unconditioned (Unlearned) Pair
Unconditioned Stimulus (UC): A stimulus which innately produces the unconditioned response
Without learning produces a response.
EX: When your friend punches you in the arm, you move your arm because it hurts, you do it without being
taught to move it. It’s not your reflexes.
Unconditioned Response (UR): A response the innately occurs to the US
Response that occurs naturally and you don’t have to learn it.
The Conditioned (Learning) Pair
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus which is initially neutral (it never naturally produces the
conditioned responses), but which comes to produce the conditioned response after being associated with
One to which you learn to make a response. Initially you never learned to make a response but you learn to
EX: Tone means food. Initially the dog didn’t learn it but they learned it by seeing the cues
Conditioned Response (CR): A response that is made naturally to the US, by never to the CS; the
learned response to the CS
Made naturally to unconditioned stimulus but never to conditioned stimulus.
1. Food naturally causes the dog to salivate
2. The bell becomes associated with the food 3. The dog learns that the bell predicts the coming of food
4. The dog salivates to the bell.
In all cases, the conditioned response is all the same to the unconditioned Response.
EX: A friend wants to show how smart her baby is. So she asks the baby who is your mommy. But if you
stroke the baby’s cheek it will look at you (that’s its neutral stimulus)
Where’s momma? ▯ stroke cheek (neutral stimulus) ▯ head turns
EX: What could you do to scare your other half?
Punch the guy in the stomach, so they go ahhh… or you could say “Pavlov” and then punch. And you keep
doing it, so once you say “Pavlov” but don’t punch, but your boyfriend’s natural instinct is to out their hand
on their stomach because they have learned that when you say “Pavlov” there’s a punch coming their way.
(They give you unconditioned response when you say “Pavlov”, so they think that “Pavlov” is now
unconditioned stimulus, since it causes them to put their hand on their stomach trying to avoid the punch.)
The CS serves as a signal that the US is coming
1. The CS can be used to predict the coming of the US
2. When the CS doesn’t occur it predicts the absence of the US
A. When the US is aversive, the absence of the CS can serve as a safety signal
3. These contingencies don’t have to be perfect to produce conditioning, but the occurences of the US must
be more probable after the CS
Pavlov can be used predict on what’s coming. So it could be used for safety.
EX: A child knows that when his father gets drunk, he beats him and stuff, so he hides in his room, but if he
doesn’t see any cues of drunkness he knows he is safe.
If UC occurs its likely CS is to occur
Note: Professor skipped two slides, and also reorganized some of the slides during class lecture. Processes of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition is the initial learning, in which an association is formed between a neutral
stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
Acquisitons: acquiring/learning conditioned response
1. More pairings of the CS and the US produce a strong CR
A. These pairings reinforce the USCS relationship
B. Called Reinforced trials
USCS are reinforcing, so strengthening the bond. When people are trying to teach someone something,
they don’t teach them often, so the other person doesn’t get it. You have to do it consistently to get the
Extinction: if the CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the CR will eventually be eliminated.
1. A CR can easily be reconditioned by reintroducing the US
2. An extinguished CR can be spontaneously recovered.
What happens if CS and US are not presented, it will stop eventually.
EX: If you give the tone, but no food all the time, the dog will start to eventually eliminate the conditioned
relations (it will stop salivating)
A conditioned response can be easily elevated, because if they already have the response, like its there the
response is always kind of available to you. (Basically the dog could start salivating again if you present
food after tone, because it has learned it in the past so it will develop it faster)
Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus Generalization: The CR will be made to Stimuli that are similar to CS
We tend to generalize conditioned response
Generalization, phobias are established.
EX: UC is fall, and CS is knockover by a dog. You’re afraid of the big dogs because once it knocked you
over, but then slowly you’re afraid of medium dogs, then small dogs and then you start connecting it to
other animals and then everyone else. And then you are afraid of all other animals. (Might as well lock
yourself in your house after that)
1. CR is weaker than to the CS
2. The more similar the CS and the new stimulus, the stronger the CR
3. Generalization is progressive
Stimulus Discrimination: Making the CR to the CS and not to a similar reinforced stimulus
Learning to make response to only certain things
Some contingencies are hard to learn
1. Overshadowing: a very dominant component of a complex stimulus will be so strong that it
becomes the only CS
2. Blocking: Difficult to attach a new CS to a well established CSUS relationship
EX: Dog given shock and food. Because shock is so painful, the dog would not response to food, and
continues taking the pain.
So the dominant part which is the shock overshadows the reward the food.
HigherOrder Conditioning: Using a wellestablished USCS relationship to produce new
conditioning 1. The previous US becomes the CS in the new conditioning
Classical Conditioning: Used to establish Stimulus
EX: Money▯ We trade for things that makes us happy. So the value of money acquires conditional response
by the things or trades you make.
Anything that is not innately valuable establishes a value after you develop this USCS relationship.
Biological Constraints on Learning
Biological Constraints on Learning
1. Different Kinds of animals are biologically prepared to learn different kinds of associations with different
degrees of difficulty
It’s easy to learn associations that are part of your world and hard to learn something else.
2. Taste Aversion: An animal learns to avoid food with a certain taste experience because it is associated
with bad experience.
Not liking something because of your experience. Developing aversion when you try a novel food and some
of them makes you sick so you avoid it for safety.
EX: Mother rats don’t eat anything that has caused their babies to get sick. So they
avoid those foods, which is called taste aversion.
EX: When cancer patients go through Chemo, it makes them sick enough that they
don’t like certain food. Since the chemo makes them sick enough that they develop
taste aversion, which makes the patient it was the food that made them sick and weak
while in reality it’s the therapy
1. Thirsty rat licks a water tube and two things happen: receives sugar water and turns on a light/tone
2. After drinking, all rats have an aversive experience 1. A. Half the rats get violently sick
2. B. Half the rats are shocked through their feet
Rats who always had tap water so when given sugar water got excited. After they drink the sugar water half
of them get violently sick while other half of them get shock in their feet so they develop a taste aversion.
Sugar Water No Aversion Aversion
Rats try avoiding anything that was dangerous
to them. If they got sick because of something
they don’t eat it ever again.
Aversion No Aversion
Aversion In rat’s natural world, you get violently sick if
In the natural world of rats if you gyou eat something toxic, so they develop no
physically hurt, and there’s new aversion because there’s no connection
thing in the environment you develop between food and the tone sound.
1. Rats are water deprived again
2. Allowed to drink in one of the 2 situations
A. Half drink sugar water, but without a light/tone sound
Same taste, sugar water, nothing external happens
B. Half drink plain water, but with the light/tone sound
Plain water with the tone and physical stimulus.
What rats will drink?
All they really care about is the new things in the environment. Rats who were made ill:
1. Will NOT drink sugar water, without light/tone
2. WILL drink plain water, with light/tone
Rats who were shocked:
1. WILL drink sugar water, without light/tone
2. Will NOT drink plain water, with Light/tone.
Biological constraints: You come prepared through your biology to tackle some things
Birds learn aversion through sight because they choose food based on what they see.
Differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning
1. What is learned?
A. Classical: the relationship between two stimuli
Phobias are developed through classical conditioning. You’re more likely to develop a phobia from your
ancestors. And not likely to develop phobias for electronics and stuff.
B. Operant: The relationship between a response and an outcome
Pavlov dogs didn’t learn to salivate to the tone; they learned that the tone predicts the food so they are not
having a response but stimuli.
2. How a response is made?
A. Classical: The response is involuntarily elicited by the stimulus Dog doesn’t choose a response to tone, but once dog notices tone = food, it automatically develops it once
that relation is learned.
B. Operant: The response is voluntarily selected from a possible set of responses
You select/ you make a choice
EX: If the dog doesn’t want any biscuits it won’t take it.
3. The relationship between response and reinforcement
A. Classical: Reinforcement is independent of the animal’s response
Reinforcement, tone▯ followed by food. It strengthens the link that the tone predicts food.
B. Operant: Reinforcement depends on the animal’s response
Have to make a response to get reinforcement.
EX: Dog doesn’t get any food till it actually sits down.
Unconditional and conditional stimulus link is established. Dog jumps you and you get
afraid of it. The best thing to do to eliminate you developing a phobia is to have a
positive or harmless experience with the dog right away.
EX: Guy who had a bad experience in the plane was afraid to take another flight, so
what he did he got drunk and was knocked out in the plane, and this safe experience
in the plane took away his fears that he developed after the 1 flight.
Extinction doesn’t break the link, if something bad happens it comes right away.
Operant or Instrumental Conditioning: The process involved in learning the relationship
between environmental events and the animals voluntary actions
Called operant because person who developed it said behaviors are operant
1. Involves a threeterm contingency: Contingency: One thing depends on another
A. Antecedents: Cues indicating whether some consequence will occur for a behavior
If you make a behavior, the cues will create an outcome.
EX: If you tell dog to sit, it will sit to get the biscuit.
B. Response: The behavior being made
Ex: The dog putting its behind on the floor to sit.
C. Consequences: The reaction to the response
EX: The system of stars to teach little kids their dutie