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WLIT 017 (16)
Lecture 14

WLIT 017 Lecture 14: Israel and the Holocaust
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Department
World Literature
Course
WLIT 017
Professor
Schreckenberger
Semester
Spring

Description
Israelandthe Holocaust Tuesday, April 18, 2017 12:25 PM 3/30 Israel and the Holocaust Zionism and Diaspora • Diaspora (from Greek,meaning "scattering, dispersion") • JewslivingoutsideIsrael • The dispersion of the Jews beyond Israel • The dispersion of any ppl from their original homeland • The Hebrew word Galut is also used to refer to the Jews exiled from the kingdomof Israel • Zionism: • Its general definition means the national movement for the return of the Jewishpplto their homeland andthe resumption oftheJewish sovereigntyinthe land ofIsrael • Theodor Herzlis consideredthe founder of the Zionist movement. In his1896 book der Judenstaat he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century Foundation of Israel • Modern Israel is located roughly on the site of the ancient kingdom of Israel and Judah except that these ancient kingdoms alsoincluded what is now the west bank • It is the birthplace of the Hebrew language, spokenin Israel, and of the Abrahamic religions. Although coming under the sway of various empires and home to a variety of ethnicities, the land of Israel was predominantly Jewishuntil the3rd century • The area became increasingly Christian after the 3rd century • It became largely Muslim from the 7th century until the middle of the 20th century • It was a focal point of conflict b/t Christianity and Islam b/t 1096 and 1291, and from the end of the crusades was part of the Syrian province of first the Mamluk sultanate of Egypt and from 1517 on the Ottoman Empire • In the late-19th century, persecution of Jews, particular in Europe, led to the creation of the Zionist movement • 1917 British conquered Syria, formed Palestine • Palestine was under British civiladministration from 1920-1948 • Balfour declaration of 1917: favored the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine • Aliyah/Jewishimmigrated to the land of Israel increased the creation of the Zionist movement • 1917 British conquered Syria, formed Palestine • Palestine was under British civiladministration from 1920-1948 • Balfour declaration of 1917: favored the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine • Aliyah/Jewishimmigrated to the land of Israel increased • Gaverise to Arab -Jewishtensions • In may 1946, president Truman announced his approval of a recommendation to admit 100,000 displaced persons into Palestine and in October publicly declared his support for the creation of a Jewish state • On Nov29, 1947 the UN adoption Resolution 181 (aka the Partition Resolution), that would divide Palestine into Jewishand Arab states in may 1948 hen the British mandate was scheduled to end • On may14, 1948, DavidBen -Gurion the head of the Jewishagency proclaimed the establishment of the state of Israel • Massive migration of Jews from Europe and Muslim countries to Israel ensued War of Independence • Immediately following the declaration of the new state, both US president Truman and soviet leader Stalin recognized the new state • Arab league members Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq refused to acceptthe un partition plan and proclaimed the right of self- determination for the Arabs across the whole of Palestine • The Arab states marched their forces into Israel, starting the first Ara-b Israeli war • The Arab states had heavy military equipment at their disposal and were initially on the defensive • May 29, 1948, the British initiated UN security council resolution 50 declaring an arms embargo on the region (violated by Czechoslovakia) • Though the un brokered 2 cease -fires during the conflict, fighting continued into1949 • Israeli and the Arab states did not reachany formal armistice agreements until February • Under separate agreements b/t Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Syria,these bordering nations agreed to formal armistice lines • Israel gained some territory formerly granted to Palestinian Arabs under the UN resolution in 1947 • Egypt and Jordan retained control over the GazaStrip and the WestBank respectively • These armistice lines held until 1967 Suez Canal Crisis/2ndArab-Israeli War • Oct29, 1956, Israeli armed forcespushed into Egypttoward the Suez canalafter EgyptianpresidentsHamal AbdelNasser(1918 -70) nationalized the canal in July of that same year, initiating the Suez Crisis • The Israelis soon were joined by French and British forces, which nearly brought the soviet union into the conflict, and damaged their relationships • These armistice lines held until 1967 Suez Canal Crisis/2ndArab-Israeli War • Oct29, 1956, Israeli armed forcespushed into Egypttoward the Suez canalafter EgyptianpresidentsHamal AbdelNasser(1918 -70) nationalized the canal in July of that same year, initiating the Suez Crisis • The Israelis soon were joined by French and Britishforces, whichnearly brought the soviet union into the conflict, and damaged their relationships with the US • In the end, the British, Frenchand Israeli governments withdrew their troops in late 1956 and early 1957 6 Day War- also called June War or 3rd Ara- Israeli War • Brief war that took place June 5-10, 1967, Israel's neighbor states Egypt, Syria, Jordanand the Iraq formed an alliance and started to mobilize against Israel • Early on the morning of June5, Israel staged a sudden preemptive air assault and destroyed Egypt's air force on the ground; 'later that day, it incapacitated a great deal of the Jordanian and Syrian air power as well • Without cover from the air, the Arab armies were left vulnerable to attack, and as a result, the Israeli victory on the ground was also overwhelming • By the time the UN cease-firetook effect on June 10, Israeli units had driven Syrian forces back from the Golan Heights, taken control of the GazaStop and the Sinai Peninsula fromEgypt, and driven Jordanian forces from the West Bank. Notably, the Israelis were left in sole control of Jerusalem • The status of these territories subsequently became a major point of contention inthe Arab -Israeli Conflict Yom-Kippur-War • Oct6, 1973, Egyptian and Syrianforceslaunched a coordinated attack against Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar • The goal was to win back territory lost to Israel during t6day-warin 1967 • Taking the Israeli defense forces by surprise, Egyptian troops swept deep into the Sinai peninsula, while Syria struggled to throw occupying Israeli troops out of the Golan Heights • Israel counterattackedand recaptured the Golan Heights • A cease-firewent into effect on October 25, 1973 Holocaustand Israeli Identity • War of 1967 - highlighted painful aspects of the holocaust for Israel • Periods of waiting in may-June1967, threatsof extermination coming from Arab countries- recalled trauma that had barely healed • Young Israeli who fought in way referred to the 6 million ghosts who fought with them Legacy of the Past • Criticismof "instrumentalizing" the holocaust - holocaust had become an apologia for antiArab-racism • Instrumentalism of ant-iSemitism - any criticism is deemed anti emitic • Palestinians: criticizeIsrael to project holocaustic intentions on arbs, divert attention from own repressive policies fought with them Legacy of the Past • Criticismof "instrumentalizing" the holocaust - holocaust had become an apologia for antiArab-racism • Instrumentalism of ant-iSemitism - any criticism is deemed anti emitic • Palestinians: criticizeIsrael to project holocaustic intentions on arbs, divert attention from own repressive policies On the other hand • Israel has real enemies • Israel's/Jew's senseof insecurity is reinforced by the continuity of its persecution in its history from Egyptian slavery, to the crusades, various pogroms, climaxing in the holocaust • Anti-Semitism has held steady over the past 2500 years • Jewstargetedby radicals Initial Situation • Silence abo
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