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Lecture 15

NURS 364 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Anaplasia, Chondroma, Neoplasm


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 364
Professor
Deborah Van Kuiken
Lecture
15

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Biology of Cancer
and Tumor Spread
Pathophysiology 364
Cancer (Neoplasia)
Neoplasia: “neo” means new,
“plasia” means growth
“it is tissue overgrowth that is independent of the laws governing the remainder of the body”
uncontrolled clonal proliferation of cells
virtually any cell type in the body
Defined by two heritable properties:
Autonomy
Anaplasia
Cell Differentiation
Undifferentiated cells (stem cells)
Divide frequently to create new stem cells
Stem cells are pluripotent
Ability to differentiate into multiple different cell types
Embryonic (fetal) cells
Differentiated cells
Matured cells with specialized function
Some differentiated cells are:
Labile- epithelial cells in areas that get disturbed a lot
Cancer often found in epithelial cells not in heart cells or neurons
Stable
Permanent- don’t divide anymore
Cell Differentiation
Undifferentiated cells (stem cells)
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Divide frequently to create new stem cells
Stem cells are pluripotent
Ability to differentiate into multiple different
cell types
Embryonic (fetal) cells
Differentiated cells
Matured cells with specialized function
Some differentiated cells are:
Labile
Stable
Permanent
Cell Differentiation & Cancer
Anaplasia
Loss of differentiation (specialization and organization)
They often do not mature normally (differentiate)
“without form” – pleomorphic
They resemble fetal cells
Already undifferentiated and rapidly dividing
Cell Differentiation & Cancer
When differentiated cells mutate, they form differentiated “working” tumors - benign tumors
When undifferentiated, rapidly dividing cells mutate, they form rapidly dividing tumors -
malignant tumors
Cell Differentiation & Cancer
Autonomy- ability to keep dividing
Undifferentiated cells (Stem cells) divide frequently
Independent from normal cellular controls
Do not wait for signals from the body that the new cells is needed- they signal
themselves
They ignore signals to stop dividing
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They do not die off (immortal cells)
They continually produce telomerase- repairs telomere so cell continues to
divide and since it keeps getting older it runs higher risk of mutations and
mistakes
Rebuild telomeres
Benign vs. Malignant
Benign
Slow growing
Capsulated – round, “lumps”, don’t have own blood supply
Growth by expansion- like a balloon growing, (like an oak tree [native species isn’t invasive
just grows bigger on its own])
Do not metastasize
Well differentiated
Malignant
Fast & Variable growth
Non-capsulated- rough/ jagged edges, spread out, have own blood supply
Invasive & Infiltrate- like a spider web, (like honeysuckle [invasive species])
Metastasize
Poorly differentiated
Classification & Nomenclature
Benign
Named according to the tissue from which they arise, and includes the suffix - “oma”
Lipoma- tumor of fat cells
Glioma- brain cells
Leiomyoma- uterine
Chondroma- cartilage
Classification & Nomenclature
Malignant tumors
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