BIOL 110

Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity

Pennsylvania State University

A STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE MAJOR GROUPS OF ORGANISMS INCLUDING THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF BIOLOGY. BIOL 110Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (GN)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. This is the first biology course taken by students who intend to major in biology. It provides a foundation for the basic concepts that govern life. In addition, these concepts are used to explain the processes of evolution which contribute to the biodiversity that we observe today. The course objectives have remained unchanged and seek to provide students with a fundamental understanding of: 1) features of life; 2) how basic genetic processes provide continuity between generations; 3) how genetic variation arises and contributes to evolutionary processes; 4) how structure relates to function; 5) how the diversity life is studied and explained by evolution.
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All BIOL 110 Materials | Fall 2015

BIOL 110 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 34 Page Final Exam Study Guide - Fall 2015
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BIOL110 Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity Final Exam Study Guide Pennsylvania State University Fall 2015BIOL 110 Lecture 1 Carbon and Life Life There is great diversity of life, but we are joined by a common ances...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 31 - Cladogenesis, Speciation
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BIOL 110 Lecture 31 What is a Species? Defining Species Many concepted proposed to define a species, but ultimately a fundamental taxonomic unit All living organisms have a certain species classification Cladogenesis new s...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 30 - Sickle-Cell Disease, Zygosity, Disruptive Selection
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BIOL 110 Lecture 30 Types of Selection Types of Selection Stabilizing Directional Diversifying Balancing Sexual Stabilization Selection Stabilizing selection favors intermediate phenotypic variants by acting against extrem...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 29 - Genotype, Lichen, Soot
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BIOL 110 Lecture 29 Genetics and Natural Selection Fitness and Selection Fitness in biological terms, reproductive success An individual who produces four offspring is more fit than one who produces three offspring An orga...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 28 - Allele Frequency, Population Genetics, Natural Selection
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BIOL 110 Lecture 28 Genes in Populations Population Genetics Population group of organisms that are members of the same species and live in the same geographical area Natural selection occurs at the individual level and ev...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 27 - Cellular Respiration, Light-Independent Reactions, Light-Dependent Reactions
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BIOL 110 Lecture 27 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis The process by which plants, protists, and some bacteria use light, water, and carbon dioxide to make sugars Can be divided into two parts Lightdependent reactions Lightind...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 26 - Electronegativity, Catabolism, Cytosol
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BIOL 110 Lecture 26 Glycolysis Background Information Highenergy molecules are unstable and may spontaneously change into lowenergy molecules through a release of energy Glucose is a highly ordered, highenergy molecule ATP...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 25 - Thermodynamics, Organism, Endergonic Reaction
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BIOL 110 Lecture 25 Thermodynamics Metabolism and Energy Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism Energy refers to that which can or does move matter Kinetic energy refers to energy associa...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 24 - Water Vascular System, Tube Feet, Tide Pool
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BIOL 110 Lecture 24 Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum Chordata Phylum Echinodermata Members are called echinoderms and common inhabitants of coastal tide pools Includes sea lilies, sea stars, and sea cucumbers Most are ses...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 23 - Nematode, Mollusca, Model Organism
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BIOL 110 Lecture 23 Phyla Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida Phylum Nematoda Extremely diverse and includes highly beneficial freeliving soil worms, pests, and parasites Includes roundworms Estimated 25 of human population is in...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 22 - Peripheral Nervous System, Choanoflagellate, Nervous Tissue
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BIOL 110 Lecture 22 Introduction to Animals The Origin of Animals In general, animals are motile, heterotrophic, and multicellular Motility refers to ability to move andor affect motion in in the organisms vicinity Ingesti...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 21 - Conidium, Ascus, Glomeromycota
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BIOL 110 Lecture 21 Fungi Phyla Continued Fungal Diversity The modern fungal kingdom has been divided into six major phyla Chytridiomycota Microsporidians Zygomycota Ascomycota Glomeromycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota Member...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 20 - Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Zygomycota
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BIOL 110 Lecture 20 Fungi Phyla Fungal Diversity The modern fungal kingdom has been divided into six major phyla Chytridiomycota Microsporidians Zygomycota Ascomycota Glomeromycota Basidiomycota Chytridiomycota Members a...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 19 - Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota
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BIOL 110 Lecture 19 Fungi Basic Biology and Morphology Basic Biology and Morphology There are more than 100,000 described species of fungi and an estimated 1.5 million additional species Mycologists scientists who study fu...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 18 - Synapsis, Complementary Dna, Cell Nucleus
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BIOL 110 Lecture 18 Crossing Over and Pairing Pairing at Prophase 1 Chromosomes linear pieces of DNA that are highly folded and compacted DNA must be highly organized and compact into cell nuclei DNA doublestranded molecul...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 17 - Allosome, Color Blindness, Y Chromosome
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BIOL 110 Lecture 17 Chromosome Behavior and Sex Chromosomes Linking Genes and Chromosomes Wildtype the phenotype that is prevalent in natural populations Mutant a phenotype that is not prevalent in natural populations ...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 16 - Mendelian Inheritance, Generation Time, Zygosity
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BIOL 110 Lecture 16 Pedigree Analysis Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Mendelian inheritance in humans is difficult to study Humans produce relatively few offspring Humans have a generation time of about 20 years Generation...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 14 - Endomembrane System, Phototaxis, Simple Eye In Invertebrates
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BIOL 110 Lecture 14 Introduction to Protists Introduction to Protists Fundamentally singlecelled eukaryotes with membranebound nuclei and organelles Appear to be relatively simple, but are actually rather sophisticated H...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 15 - Prokaryote, Cellulase, Cellulose
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BIOL 110 Lecture 15 Protists with Modified Mitochondria, Kingdoms Euglenozoa an Alveolata Proteins with Modified Mitochondria Two groups of protists have highly modified mitochondria: diplomonads and parabasalids Suggest...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 13 - Symbiogenesis, Egg Cell, Rickettsiales
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BiOL 110 Lecture 13 Subcellular Architecture of Eukaryotic Cells Vacuoles Have various roles in cells In animal cells: primarily storage organelles for proteins and lipids In plant cells: have a large central vacuole fil...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 12 - Camillo Golgi, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum
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BIOL 110 Lecture 12 Subcellular Architecture of Eukaryotic Cells The Golgi Apparatus Golgi apparatus component of the endomembrane system involved in processing proteins Discovered by Camillo Golgi Associated with endop...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 11 - Signal Recognition Particle, Endomembrane System, Peptide
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BIOL 110 Lecture 11 Subcellular Architecture of Eukaryotic Introduction to Subcellular Organization of Eukaryotic Cells It was previously thought that the distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells was the pres...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 10 - Pathogenic Bacteria, Parasitism, Nitrogen Fixation
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BIOL 110 Lecture 10 Prokaryotic Evolution and Early MetabolismType of SymbiosesSymbionts interacting organisms with varying relationshipsHost larger of the two speciesMicrosymbiont smaller of the two speciesMutualism ...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 9 - Peptidoglycan, Cell Membrane, Lipopolysaccharide
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BIOL 110 Lecture 9 Prokaryotic Structure and FunctionThe Prokaryotic Cell Wall and PeptidoglycanCells of all organisms are encased in plasma membrane consisting of a selectively permeable phospholipid bilayerBilayer bala...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 8 - Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Prokaryote, Plasmid
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BIOL 110 Lecture 8 ProkaryotesTransformationOccurs when prokaryotes acquire genes from the surrounding environmentDNA may have been left over by other bacteriaForeign DNA is directly taken up and expressedThose that take...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 7 - Prokaryote, Genetic Variation, Chromosome
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BIOL 110 Lecture 7 ProkaryotesProkaryotic PresenceProkaryotes dominate the biosphereOutnumber all eukaryotes combinedDNA diversity analysis suggests that new bacteria evolve quite rapidlyExample: one teaspoon of common d...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 6 - Monera, Eukaryote, Protist
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BIOL 110 Lecture 6 Diversity of Life Diversity of Life Earth has been a living planet for about 4 billion years About 1.8 million species have been described so far Estimated 10100 million species living today All life com...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 5 - Geologic Time Scale, Radiometric Dating, Sedimentary Rock
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BIOL 110 Lecture 5 Fossils and Dating Fossil Record Fossils are preserved remnants of organisms or preserved entire organisms Fossils can be organized by age groups according to a geological time scale (classification of d...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 4 - Plate Tectonics, Radiometric Dating, Subduction
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BIOL 110 Lecture 4 Early Earth Early Earth Astronomical data indicates the universe is about 13.7 billion years old Assumes the the universe is constantly expanding Big Bang all matter in the known universe arose from this...

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BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 3 - Lipid Bilayer, Amphiphile, Hydrophile
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BIOL 110 Lecture 3 More Macromolecules Lipids (continued) Phospholipids are amphipathic with a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails Important component of cellular membrane In water, will form a phospholipid bilayer with...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 2 - Ribulose, Structural Formula, Starch
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BIOL 110 Lecture 2 Macromolecules Macromolecules Large organic compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Play important roles in energy storage and structure Carbohydrates Have a basic structure written as C...

Biology
BIOL 110
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BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Fall 2015, Lecture 1 - Chemical Polarity, Electronegativity, Covalent Bond
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BIOL 110 Lecture 1 Carbon and Life Life There is great diversity of life, but we are joined by a common ancestor that existed 3.7 billion years ago Water is essential to all life The Properties of Water Water, HO, is a pol...

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BIOL 110
Woodward, Hass, Burpee
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