Never forget that even small effects can be statistically significant if the samples are large. During a three-year period, 8 of the 57 headed by men and 6 of the 35 headed by women failed.

(a) Find the proportions of failures for businesses headed by women and businesses headed by men. These sample proportions are quite close to each other. Give the p-value for the hypothesis that the same proportion of women's and men's businesses fail. (Use two-sided alternative). What can we conclude (use alpha as 0.05)?

The p-value was ___________ so we conclude that ____________.

(b) Now suppose that the same sample proportion came from a sample 30 times as large. That is 180 out of 1050 businesses headed by women and 240 out of 1710 businesses headed by men fail. Verify that the proportions of failures are exactly the same as in part (a). Repeat the test for the new data. What can we conclude?

The p-value was ___________ so we conclude that ____________.

c) It is wise to use a confidence interval to estimate the size of an effect rather than just giving a p-value. Give 95% confidence intervals for the difference between proportions of men's and women's businesses that fail for the settings of both (a) and (b).

Interval for smaller samples: ___________ to ___________.

Interval for larger samples: ___________ to ___________.

What is the effect of larger samples on the confidence interval?

Never forget that even small effects can be statistically significant if the samples are large. During a three-year period, 8 of the 57 headed by men and 6 of the 35 headed by women failed.

(a) Find the proportions of failures for businesses headed by women and businesses headed by men. These sample proportions are quite close to each other. Give the p-value for the hypothesis that the same proportion of women's and men's businesses fail. (Use two-sided alternative). What can we conclude (use alpha as 0.05)?

The p-value was ___________ so we conclude that ____________.

(b) Now suppose that the same sample proportion came from a sample 30 times as large. That is 180 out of 1050 businesses headed by women and 240 out of 1710 businesses headed by men fail. Verify that the proportions of failures are exactly the same as in part (a). Repeat the test for the new data. What can we conclude?

The p-value was ___________ so we conclude that ____________.

c) It is wise to use a confidence interval to estimate the size of an effect rather than just giving a p-value. Give 95% confidence intervals for the difference between proportions of men's and women's businesses that fail for the settings of both (a) and (b).

Interval for smaller samples: ___________ to ___________.

Interval for larger samples: ___________ to ___________.

What is the effect of larger samples on the confidence interval?