INTR2010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Indochina Refugee Crisis, 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake And Tsunami, 1997 Asian Financial Crisis

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HUMAN SECURITY IN ASIA
Human security
What is human security?
-Threats to individual, not state
-UNDP’s 1994 Human Development Report
Not “national security”  People-centered, universal, multivocal, multidimensional
and interdependent
Canadian and Japanese types
Asia-Pacific human security
Asia’s “new” securities  comprehensive, cooperative and non-traditional
Asian values? Sovereignty and human rights, development vs. political rights
Key events  Asian financial crisis, SARS and Indian Ocean tsunami
Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
Basic premise  responsibility of sovereignty
UN’s 3 pillars (2005)
-State responsibility to protect from mass crimes
-Intl. responsibility:
(1) to avoid failed states
(2) to step in
Criticism:
-Imperialism
-Militarization
-Intervention threshold
R2P in the Asia Pacific
Historical episodes
-Indonesia’s anti-communist purges
-East Timor’s independence
-Sri Lanka’s civil war
CSCAP study group (2011)
-ARF Risk Reduction Centre
-Asian ambivalence
-Asia’s “intervention” dilemma
The North Korea dilemma
North Korea  totalitarian state with nuclear weapons
Crimes against humanity:
-Concentration camps
-Torture and violence
-Persecution
-UN HRC report (2014): ibid., in incredible detail with testimony
-R2P dilemma  condemnation, refer to ICC? Impose sanctions? Take action?
Human security and refugees
Major conventions
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-Refugee Convention (1951) and 1967 protocol: defines refugees
-Stateless Conventions (1954 and 1961): dealing with the stateless
Non-refoulement
-Not returning refugees to places where persecution is likely
UNHCR  Global coordination role (1950)
Asia’s refugee policies
Refugee Convention
-Reluctance to sign because…economic development over human rights issues,
sovereignty and non-interference principles, and national over human security
CPA (1989)
-Indochinese refugees
-Transit nations hosting  subsequent resettlement
Refugee crises in Asia
Indochina refugee crisis
-1975-95  3M, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
-Geneva (1979) and CPA (1989): transition  destination; comprehensive 
partial
Myanmar refugee crisis
-Ethnic minorities, internally and externally displaced (3 million)
-Rohingya Muslim minority, post-2012 violence, 2015 crisis
The Bali process
Overview
-Established 2002 and aimed at regional cooperation framework
-Indonesia and Australia
Framework  Asylum rights, non-refoulement, practical but non-binding
Declaration (2016)  Rohingya response, few concrete measures
ASIA’S ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
ASIA’S ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
Environmental security
Environment and security
-Since the 1980s, the environment and environmental change have been
considered human security issues that affect both the physical security of citizens
and the national security of nation-states
-Ecological security
-National or human security perspectives
There is an argument that getting richer ignored the environmental externality costs
of getting richer – this laid the foundation for subsequent divisions between
developed world responsibility for climate change and the developing world’s right to
develop
State perspectives  managing environmental threats to society
Develop-enviro trade-off
Climate change and security
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Document Summary

Not national security people-centered, universal, multivocal, multidimensional and interdependent. Asia"s new securities comprehensive, cooperative and non-traditional. Sovereignty and human rights, development vs. political rights. Key events asian financial crisis, sars and indian ocean tsunami. Intl. responsibility: (1) to avoid failed states (2) to step in. North korea totalitarian state with nuclear weapons. Un hrc report (2014): ibid. , in incredible detail with testimony. Refugee convention (1951) and 1967 protocol: defines refugees. Stateless conventions (1954 and 1961): dealing with the stateless. Not returning refugees to places where persecution is likely. Reluctance to sign because economic development over human rights issues, sovereignty and non-interference principles, and national over human security. Geneva (1979) and cpa (1989): transition destination; comprehensive . 1975-95 3m, vietnam, laos and cambodia partial. Ethnic minorities, internally and externally displaced (3 million) Rohingya muslim minority, post-2012 violence, 2015 crisis. Established 2002 and aimed at regional cooperation framework. Framework asylum rights, non-refoulement, practical but non-binding. Declaration (2016) rohingya response, few concrete measures.

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